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physical metallurgical principles

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article presents an outline of the physical metallurgical principles that are associated with heat treating of steels. It describes the iron-carbon phase diagram and various types of transformation diagrams, including isothermal transformation diagrams, continuous heating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... Abstract The heat treatment of steel is based on the physical metallurgical principles that relate to its processing, properties, and structure. The microstructures that result from the heat treatment of steel are composed of one or more phases in which the atoms of iron, carbon, and other...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003124
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract The physical and mechanical properties of aluminum alloy can be improved by strengthening mechanisms such as strain hardening used for non-heat treatable aluminum alloy and precipitation hardening used for heat treatable aluminum alloy. This article focuses on the effect of...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... for metal extraction through electrometallurgy, whereas hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical techniques are suitable for treating a beneficiated ore. This Section will discuss the basic principles of these major types of metallurgical processes in further detail, and will show the path of metal...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003234
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Eddy-current inspection is a nondestructive evaluation method based on the principles of electromagnetic induction. Eddy-current methods are used to identify or differentiate a wide variety of physical, structural, and metallurgical conditions in electrically conductive ferromagnetic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006450
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Eddy-current inspection is based on the principles of electromagnetic induction and is used to identify or differentiate among a wide variety of physical, structural, and metallurgical conditions in electrically conductive ferromagnetic and nonferromagnetic metals and metal parts. This...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article provides a detailed account of x-ray diffraction (XRD) residual-stress techniques. It begins by describing the principles of XRD stress measurement, followed by a discussion on the most common methods of XRD residual-stress measurement. Some of the procedures required for...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... phase diagrams binary phase diagrams mechanical properties microstructure physical properties plotting schemes ternary phase diagrams thermodynamic principles thermodynamic properties unary phase diagrams ALLOY PHASE DIAGRAMS are useful to metallurgists, materials engineers, and materials...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...-mold filters). In either application, it is important to understand the basic characteristics of the filters. The mechanical removal of undissolved particulates from molten metal follows the same basic physics as the filtration of particulate from any liquid. The basic principles of filtration are...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... quality coal to produce coke is characterized by low contents of ash (<15%), inert material, and sulfur and high content of fixed carbon ( Ref 4 ). Coal carbonization is carried out in coke ovens to produce metallurgical coke, which is the solid fuel burned in air inside the ironmaking reactor to...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005240
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY is a powerful tool used to understand the critical aspects of heat transfer and fluid transport phenomena and their relationships to metallurgical structures and defect formation in metal casting processes. Computational models are enabling the design and production of more economical...
Book Chapter

By S. Lampman
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006645
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article provides a detailed account of X-ray spectroscopy used for elemental identification and determination. It begins with an overview of the operating principles of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer, as well as a comparison of the operating principles of wavelength...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... an optimized gating system will be made easier by the application of several fundamental principles of fluid flow. The article illustrates the Bernoulli's theorem, the law of continuity, and the effect of momentum. Most casting alloys are subject to the presence of particles that can deleteriously...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001264
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Electroless nickel plating is used to deposit nickel without the use of an electric current. This article provides an overview of the solution composition and characteristics of the electroless nickel bath. It focuses on the metallurgical, mechanical and physical properties of...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005322
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... and the various metallurgical aspects, such as composition, alloying element, solidification, and graphite morphologies, of different types of cast iron. It describes the physical properties for various cast irons and the influence of microstructure and chemical composition on each property. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005407
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract Neural-network (NN) modeling is most suitable for simulations of correlations that are hard to describe or cannot be accurately predicted by physical models. This article describes the principles and procedures of NN modeling. It discusses the use of NN modeling in general organization...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to the accident This involves the application of physical laws and engineering principles to determine the validity of the reconstruction hypothesis. Many investigations cease at this point, with little to no modeling or physical testing being performed. Many accidents, especially those with...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005425
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... used for “training” the model. Since the physics of the metallurgical process being modeled are not known, extrapolating statistical-based models outside the parameter range in which they are trained is not advisable and can lead to errors and large deviations from reality if the physics of the process...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005427
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... unique mix of research expertise including experimentalists, theoreticians, numerical modeling, metallurgy, physics, and engineering mechanics. Fig. 3 Metallurgical length scales that dominate properties in cast aluminum alloys Commercial software such as ProCAST and MagmaSoft has been used...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... . Fig. 6 Two kinetic paths or melting and/or dissolving alloy additions in liquid metal baths. Source: Ref 18 Revised from the articles “Principles of Physical Chemistry” and “Composition Control” by Seymour Katz in Casting , Vol 15, Metals Handbook , 9th ed., ASM International, 1988...