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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003527
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and art. Proper imaging techniques are required to produce an acceptable fracture surface photograph. Experience is required to produce a visually acceptable fracture surface photograph. The use of proper equipment, proper technique, and the study of the resulting photographs can lead to exceptional...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001833
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract This article discusses the preparation of photomacrographs of fracture surfaces. It provides useful information on the equipment used, such as view cameras, 35-mm single-lens-reflex cameras, and stereomicroscopes. The article describes the role of lenses, focusing, camera magnification...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... should be familiar with the operation, capabilities, and optimal settings of the camera and flash equipment being used. Experienced investigators are often frustrated when a critical photograph is found improperly exposed or out of focus. Use of a professional photographer is one way to mitigate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... and analyzing background information, preliminary determination of site conditions, inspection equipment requirements, coating failure site investigation, sampling techniques, sample chain of custody, coordination with the coatings laboratory, report preparation, and sample retention. adhesion adhesion...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003523
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... At a later point in time, if questions arise regarding the condition of the scene at the time of the accident, these photographs/videotapes can be reviewed to attempt to answer these questions. Locations and conditions of objects, positions of knobs/switches on equipment, and so on can be permanently...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., mechanical polishing, and etching. Small specimens can be cut from a part on the site for preparation, examination, and photography immediately or upon return to a fully equipped laboratory. Photography is, of course, essential; it should be performed by the analyst or perhaps a professional photographer...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003240
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... the liquid-surface system suitable for rapid inspection of large amounts of material on a continuous basis. In contrast, inspection with the scanning system is relatively slow. Photographic or videotape records for later study may be made with either system. The outstanding feature of the scanning system...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., or a “go” kit ( Fig. 3 and Table 1 ), with all required equipment. Years ago, there was an expression “film is cheap,” but now with digital cameras, a better expression would be “JPEGs are free.” Take hundreds or even thousands of photographs. Photographs are better than an engineer’s memories...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... of chemicals; the etchant vapors also are very corrosive. Etching equipment must usually be isolated from other plant equipment Suitable photographic facilities are not always available Maximum metal thickness that can be blanked is about 1.6 mm ( 1 16 in.) Sharp radii cannot be produced...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006138
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... Fingernail polish Copper Lawn and garden equipment Bronze Photographic equipment Bronze, brass, nickel silver ODS, oxide dispersion strengthened. Source: Ref 1 Table 4 Sintered density and hardness properties of sintered copper powder under varying process conditions Briquetting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... numbers of samples. Fig. 2 Photograph of automated polishing equipment showing a series of four automated polishing stations. This allows easy sample movement from one automated polisher to the next without having to change platens or process parameters. Fig. 3 Photograph of a manual...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... elements in metals and alloys. Threshold sensitivity on the order of tens of parts per million (ppm): 0.001 to 0.01% Precision of quantitative analyses: photographic instruments, ∼5% relative or 0.05% absolute, whichever is greater; direct reading and charge coupled device (CCD) instruments, ∼1...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003236
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... to resort to permanent imaging methods such as photographs. (Photographic equipment, facsimile recorders, or x - y plotters can be used to record B-scan data for later reference.) Oscilloscope input for one axis of the display is provided by an electromechanical device, which generates an electrical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and art; experience and proper imaging techniques are required to produce an accurate and meaningful fracture surface photograph. The use of the correct equipment, including proper lighting, can result in excellent technical photographs. This article reviews photographic principles and techniques...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... of the object being inspected cause variations in the intensity of the unabsorbed radiation and appear as variations in photographic density (shades of gray) in the developed film. Evaluation of the radiograph is based on a comparison of the differences in photographic density with known characteristics...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003519
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to be that “film is cheap,” but now “J-pegs are free.” Photograph the item, the area, any supporting equipment, maybe people, anything and everything. Be careful about color. Known color chart, white piece of paper, etc. Kodak grey or color chart, Ace Hardware paint charts, red button, your tie. Anything you...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... in Ref 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , and 9 . With the equipment currently available, high-quality micrographs are easily produced. However, doing so requires careful attention to specimen preparation, etching, and use of the microscope. The specimen must be adequately prepared to ensure correct...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006024
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... in the article “Shop and Field Quality Control and Quality Assurance” in this Volume. The various surface-preparation methods described herein have inherent safety and health concerns and require the use of personal protective equipment. Each potential safety and health issue must be evaluated...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... of microstructure on the fracture mode of the material. Study of the characteristics of fracture surfaces by optical (light-microscope) fractography is widely practiced, particularly when a low magnification of the fracture surface is adequate. This study can be accomplished with relatively simple equipment...
Book Chapter

By B.P. Bewlay, D.U. Furrer
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005123
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
.... The process technology, equipment, and tooling for both manual spinning and power spinning are also discussed. force forming seamless metal manual spinning metal spinning power spinning rotational motion METAL SPINNING is a term used to describe the forming of metal into seamless, axisymmetric...