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photochemical reactions

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006920
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... the primary stress factor in a natural outdoor environment through the energetic UV radiation that triggers photochemical reactions and further secondary reactions ( Ref 5 ). The reference solar spectral irradiance of solar radiation is defined in CIE 241 Table A.2 CIE-H1 ( Ref 6 ). Artificial radiation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006871
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of thermal oxidation of a material as well as the rate of photochemical reactions but typically also decrease the moisture content, which can decrease the rate of hydrolysis reactions. It is therefore critical for meaningful and realistic artificial testing to simulate all of these factors simultaneously...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... Abstract Photochemical machining (PCM), also known as chemical blanking, is a metal-etching process that uses a photoresist to define the locations where the metal will be etched. This article describes the major steps used in the PCM process, namely, the preparation of the phototool, selection...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... as well as the rate of photochemical reactions. This article will present a general overview of aging factors, their effects on plastic materials, and the accelerated test methods that can be used to estimate the reaction of a plastic component during actual use. Weathering Degradation Factors...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... unreacted methacrylate monomers are added to a terminal free-radical site on the molecule ( Ref 21 ). Initiation of this reaction can be through a thermal, chemical, or photochemical process, with photochemical polymerization (photopolymerization) being the most commonly used in dentistry ( Ref 13...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.9781627081887
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0005701
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... Numbering System LBM laser beam machining nitride) USM ultrasonic machining In natural logarithm (base e) UTS ultimate tensile strength log common logarithm (base 10) PCD polycrystalline diamond LSG low-stress grinding PCM ' photochemical machining V volt m meter pH negative logarithm of hydrogen-ion MB...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003691
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... has been very responsive to enacted legislation and to proposed legislation limiting the use of potentially harmful or toxic raw materials or surface preparation and/or application techniques. As a result of this positive industry reaction, the legislators as a whole have been pragmatic in their laws...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001286
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... of the depositing adatoms, growth morphology of the film, gas entrapment, reaction with deposition ambient (including reactive deposition processes), and changes in the film properties during deposition Postdeposition processing and reactions —e.g., reaction of film surface with the ambient, thermal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003692
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... resistance is usually excellent. Because of the versatility of the isocyanate reaction, wide diversity exists in specific coating properties. Exposure to the isocyanate should be minimized to avoid sensitivity that may result in an asthmatic-like breathing condition on continued exposure. Carbon dioxide...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
..., the reactive sites of each of the reacting molecules must align and come within very close proximity to each other (generally within 3 to 5 angstroms (Å = 1 × 10 –10 m) for the chemical crosslinking reaction to occur ( Ref 1 ). For example, in an epoxy resin that is crosslinked with a polyamide copolymer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...-related standards for air pollutants. One of these pollutants is ozone, which is the primary component of the condition known as smog. Because smog is caused in part by the photochemical oxidation of solvent vapors from coating application sources, this regulation has had a profound impact on how coatings...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 12 September 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23A.a0006900
EISBN: 978-1-62708-392-8
... (<20 μm) Requires photochemical reactions Requires extraction of unreacted species Multiple materials possible only in z -plane The synergies between pharmaceutical, or active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), and polymer printing are discussed in the following sections...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... deposition ( Ref 8 ) (i.e., oxidizing ambients and enhanced gas-phase reaction due to high kinetic energies of evaporated material) ( Ref 9 ), and the growth of high-quality II-VI semiconductor superlattices ( Ref 10 , 11 , 12 ). However, research in these areas was still not sufficient to distinguish PLD...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006012
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... into other compounds of the same metal; for example, oxygen can be replaced by sulfide. Recently, galvanic replacement reaction was used to transform 19 nm manganese oxide (Mn 2 O 3 ) nanoparticles into hollow 23 nm iron (III) oxide (Fe 2 O 3 ) cages ( Ref 24 ). Tin oxide cages could be similarly prepared...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003844
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... on a surface. The resin may convert from a liquid to a hardened film by the evaporation of solvents or water without changing chemically, or a chemical reaction may occur. The paint is usually filled with pigments to give it strength, opacity, and color. Deterioration of a properly applied protective...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...: Reduce or eliminate the use of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which create smog through photochemical reactions. Most VOCs will be reduced, categorically, by industry group. Control, reduce, or eliminate 189 chemicals determined to be hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Under the National Emission...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001487
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... is used. Photochemical reactions between ultraviolet radiation and chlorinated hydrocarbons result in the production of phosgene and other decomposition products. The arc heat is responsible for the formation of oxides of nitrogen from atmospheric nitrogen. Hence, nitrogen oxides may be produced...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002168
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... an exothermic reaction with many metals. Exothermic percussion drilling provides more efficient metal removal. Air or inert gas can also be used in percussion drilling. Nozzle orifice diameters and standoffs are larger for percussion drilling than those used for cutting (or for trepanning, which is essentially...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.9781627082006
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6