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photochemical aging

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006920
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Abstract This article describes the processes involved in photochemical aging and weathering of polymeric materials. It explains how solar radiation, especially in the UV range, combines with atmospheric oxygen, driving photooxidation and the development of unstable photoproducts that cause...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... Abstract Photochemical machining (PCM), also known as chemical blanking, is a metal-etching process that uses a photoresist to define the locations where the metal will be etched. This article describes the major steps used in the PCM process, namely, the preparation of the phototool, selection...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006871
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Abstract This article presents a general overview of outdoor weather aging factors, their effects on the performance of polymeric materials, and the accelerated test methods that can be used to investigate those effects. These test methods are used to characterize material performance when...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... as well as the rate of photochemical reactions. This article will present a general overview of aging factors, their effects on plastic materials, and the accelerated test methods that can be used to estimate the reaction of a plastic component during actual use. Weathering Degradation Factors...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002188
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... for machining, particularly when the smoothest finish is desired. Hot-rolled material is next best, and annealed material is the least desirable in most applications. On age-hardenable alloys, optimum finish is produced by machining in the aged condition. The high strength and hardness of the aged material...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... as age hardening). Cold work can be performed on wrought products between annealing and age hardening to enhance the magnitude of the age-hardening response. Fig. 1 Phase diagrams for beryllium-copper alloys. (a) Binary composition for high-strength alloys such as C17200. (b) Pseudobinary...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... unreacted methacrylate monomers are added to a terminal free-radical site on the molecule ( Ref 21 ). Initiation of this reaction can be through a thermal, chemical, or photochemical process, with photochemical polymerization (photopolymerization) being the most commonly used in dentistry ( Ref 13...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003844
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
...) of coatings were used ( Ref 1 ). Most of the total yearly amount is successfully specified and applied to a properly prepared surface and to the appropriate thickness. These coatings perform as intended but, over time, deteriorate and lose their protective or aesthetic function as a result of aging combined...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...-related standards for air pollutants. One of these pollutants is ozone, which is the primary component of the condition known as smog. Because smog is caused in part by the photochemical oxidation of solvent vapors from coating application sources, this regulation has had a profound impact on how coatings...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... to provide these functions, the protective coating must remain intact and adherent on the surface to which it has been applied. The vast majority of all protective coatings perform admirably until an old age, at which time natural deterioration and degradation occur. However, a coating can fail prematurely...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... beam machining machinability Machining is the removal of material by various ways from a workpiece, and many machining techniques have been developed since the industrial/machine age of the late 19 th Century ( Ref 1 ). Each technique is based on a distinct physical phenomenon for machining...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003649
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... and Technology , U.S. National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program , Washington, D.C. , p. 19 – 1 to 19 – 280 , 1991 2. He W. , Odenvall Wallinder I. , and Leygraf C. , A Comparison Between Corrosion Rates and Runoff Rates from New and Aged Copper and Zinc as Roofing Materials...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006012
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... ) micro µ one-millionth (10 −6 ) nano n one-billionth (10 −9 ) pico p one-trillionth (10 −12 ) femto f one-quadrillionth (10 −15 ) American physicist Richard Feynman generally is credited with kicking off the nanotechnology age in 1959 when he gave a lecture entitled “There's...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002433
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
...-cycle data must be assessed in order to establish their accuracy and reliability. Typically, factors such as data age, content, accuracy, and variation need to be determined. Clearly, data quality affects the level of confidence in decisions that are based on study results. Step 2: Inventory Analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... and photochemical etching, and they can even be joined to other metals by welding and brazing. ECM is used in polishing, which is covered later. Limited studies report the use of EDM as a postprocessing method for AM metals except for part and platform separation. In a patented hybrid ultraprecision die-sinking...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004140
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
.... This situation can also be true for a variety of acidic particulates produced in photochemical smog, because anthropogenic particulates of 1 μm (0.04 mils) or smaller are difficult for most general filtration systems to remove. While some of these agents may not corrode metal directly, they can play a catalytic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... in a supermarket 1974 Rare-gas halide excimer lasers invented; several types demonstrated 1974 Two-photon Doppler-free spectroscopy developed independently by Theodor Hänsch at Stanford and David Pritchard at Massachusetts Institute of Technology 1976 Bell Labs' accelerated aging tests predict million...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002170
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... completely perforated in etched areas, similar to mechanically blanked parts, rather than etched to a given final thickness, as in chemical milling. The article “Photochemical Machining” in this Volume gives a more detailed description of chemical blanking. Chemical milling services are offered...
Book Chapter

By Barry Law
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006060
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... photochemically reactive solvents and set the first limits on the amount of VOCs permissible in paints and coatings ( Ref 5 ). Figure 1 shows the beneficial effects of environmental consumerism and legislation on ozone levels in the downtown Los Angeles area over a 40-year period from 1955, when modern...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6