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phosphate layers

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Published: 01 January 2003
Fig. 2 SEM pictures of crystalline phosphate layers on steel, four different types of galvanized steel, and aluminum. All micrographs are shown at the same magnification. More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... the composition of phosphating baths, phosphate layers, and their analysis, as well as the process hardware necessary to realize these treatments. A summary of the different types of phosphate layers is tabulated, and the chemical formulas for a number of different phosphate compounds that are theoretically...
Image
Published: 01 January 2003
Fig. 1 Scanning electron micrographs and x-ray diffraction patterns comparing crystalline and amorphous phosphate layer. (a) Tri-cation phosphate layer of a spray process. (b) Tri-cation phosphate layer of a no-rinse process. Substrate is electrogalvanized steel. More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... A phosphate layer, M 3 (PO 4 ) 2 · nH 2 O), is formed on a metal substrate by exposure to a phosphating bath. The letter M stands for a metal and represents divalent metallic cations of one or more metallic alloying elements in the phosphating bath that deposit onto the metal being phosphated; n...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... to the formation of a carbonated hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of the A-W glass-ceramic ( Ref 27 ). The apatite layer is similar in composition to the apatite in natural bone. Calcium Phosphates Calcium phosphates are the major inorganic constituents of biological hard tissues. Hydroxyapatite (HA), Ca...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
..., casting, forming, joining, and other processes. The workpiece surface is influenced and changed. There re two distinct changes: mechanical (deforming, compressing, abrasion, and so on) and chemical (phosphate layers, reaction with corrosion protection, cooling fluids, oil, and so on). Figure 4 shows...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006521
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... Abstract Chemical conversion coatings are adherent surface layers of low-solubility oxide, phosphate, chromate, and chromate-free compounds produced by the reaction of suitable reagents with the metallic surface. This article provides an overview on chromate-free coatings, along with coverage...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004162
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... zinc phosphate or a zirconium polymeric layer, depending on the mix of substrates in the phosphate system. The zinc phosphate pretreatment layer is usually no more than 2 μm thick. It promotes adhesion of the paint layer to the metal substrate. The electrocoat primer is most frequently a cathodically...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005675
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... Abstract This article focuses on ceramics, glasses, glass-ceramics, and their derivatives, that is, inorganic-organic hybrids, in the forms of solid or porous bodies, oxide layers/coatings, and particles with sizes ranging from nanometers to micrometers, or even millimetres. These include inert...
Image
Published: 12 September 2022
calcium phosphate cement(CPC)–supported zones resembling (b) articular cartilage and underlying layers, that is, an interconnected network of (c) calcified cartilage, and (d) a subchondral bone phase resembled by pure CPC. Source: Ref 70 . Creative Commons License (CC BY 4.0), https More
Image
Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 2 Compressor coating. The coating is composed of an aluminum-filled inorganic phosphate with a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) layer on top. Beneath the PTFE layer is an ion-reactive primer that inhibits corrosion, which otherwise would cause delamination of this top layer. As-polished More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004032
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... the greatest significance for high-alloyed steels and special materials when the parts cannot be cold formed or when it is possible to ensure more economical production by using less forming stages. A phosphate layer is preferred at temperatures less than 400 °C (750 °F). Moreover, as a general rule...
Image
Published: 31 December 2017
Fig. 14 Schematic of lubricant layers formed during soaping process with zinc-phosphate coated wire and soap-based lubricant bath More
Image
Published: 01 December 1998
% dissociation. Both specimens were oil quenched from 845 °C (1550 °F), tempered for 2 h at 620 °C (1150 °F), and surface activated with manganese phosphate before nitriding. (a) Structure after single-stage nitriding 0.005 to 0.0075 mm (0.0002 to 0.0003 in.) white surface layer (Fe 2 N), iron nitride More
Image
Published: 01 June 2012
Fig. 24 A potentiodynamic polarization test performed according to ASTM F2129 provides a convenient and valuable tool for assessing the protective nature of a passive layer. Samples are immersed in phosphate-buffered saline electrolyte, and a voltage is applied with respect to a reference More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 12 September 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23A.a0006903
EISBN: 978-1-62708-392-8
...% and 90/70% (70% binder saturation in the core, and 90% saturation outside) on physical and mechanical properties of 3D-printed calcium phosphate scaffolds was reported ( Ref 49 ). Binder saturation levels did not significantly change the physical and mechanical properties for a 190 μm layer thickness...
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 37 Effect of single-stage and double-stage gas nitriding on formation of a compound layer in AMS 6470 steel (with 0.15 to 0.35% Pb added). Oil quenched from 900 °C (1650 °F), tempered 2 h at 605 °C (1125 °F), surface activated in manganese phosphate. (a) Gas nitrided 30 h at 525 °C (975 More
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003217
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... is the treatment of iron, steel, galvanized steel, or aluminum with a dilute solution of phosphoric acid and other chemicals in which the surface of the metal, reacting chemically with the phosphoric acid medium, is converted to an integral, mildly protective layer of insoluble crystalline phosphate. Phosphate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001012
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
..., and service life of the host material. The article covers metallic coatings, including zinc, aluminum, zinc-aluminum alloys, tin, and terne; pretreatment or phosphate coatings; and preprimed and painted finishes based on organic coatings. aluminum coatings aluminum-zinc alloy coatings hot dip process...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 12 September 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23A.a0006884
EISBN: 978-1-62708-392-8
... to FAp; FAp particles expanded using the calcium and phosphate ions in the attached DCPD and fluoride ions in the surrounding solution; and all of the DCPD transformed to FAp by templating the DCPD particles, as shown in Fig. 14(b) ( Ref 31 ). SBF is beneficial for forming an HAp layer on various...