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phased array ultrasound

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006452
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... for arrays in NDE. analytical methods direct numerical methods finite-element methods nondestructive evaluation nonlinear imaging algorithms phased array ultrasound ULTRASOUND is an ideal modality for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) because it enables the interior of objects to be assessed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... of phase-array by numerical processing of an array of previously acquired laser-ultrasonic signals. The article describes the ultrasound generation by thermoelastic mechanism and ablation or vaporization. It illustrates the principle of optical detection of ultrasound with confocal Fabry-Perot...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006471
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...), laser ultrasound phased array transducers, magnetostriction transducers, and couplants. The article discusses four basic types of search units with piezoelectric transducers. These include the straight-beam contact type, the angle-beam contact type, the dual-element contact type, and the immersion type...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006469
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... applications are considered in detail in the article “Phased Array Ultrasound” in this Volume. The pulse-echo method involves the detection of echoes produced when an ultrasonic pulse is reflected from a discontinuity or an interface in a test piece. This method is used in flaw detection, flaw location...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
..., more advanced ultrasonic methods, such as linear phased array and matrix phased array, have been used for weld inspections. Phased array probes consist of multiple transducer elements within a single probe housing that can be grouped to form a desired aperture size and then pulsed in different timing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006477
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
..., such as linear phased array and matrix phased array, have been used for weld inspections. Phased array probes consist of multiple transducer elements within a single probe housing that can be grouped to form a desired aperture size and then pulsed in different timing sequences. By varying the timing sequences...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006470
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... with two transducers in transmission, with the object under test between them. An example of a two-transducer NDT system is shown in schematic form in Fig. 1 ( Ref 1 ). Recent years have seen increasing adoption of phased arrays; these are considered in the article “Phased Array Ultrasound...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... in this Volume ( Ref 6 , 7 ). The past decade has seen fundamental changes in ultrasonic NDT instrumentation and transducers. Most systems are now digital instruments, and many units employ phased arrays rather than single-element transducers; many systems implement full matrix capture, which enables...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006466
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... with the transmission and/or reflection of ultrasound signals. Compared to conventional ultrasound imaging techniques, which operate in the 1 to 10 MHz frequency range, acoustic microscopes operate up to and beyond 1 GHz, where the wavelength is very short and the resolution correspondingly high. In the early stages...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... the ultrasound is produced. Unlike the generation laser that is ideally absorbed by the composite, this laser is scattered off of the composite surface. The collected scattered light is analyzed by an interferometer to extract the ultrasonic signals that are “imprinted” on the laser as phase and frequency...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
..., collect the scattered light, and use an interferometer to analyze laser photons to measure the small phase or frequency shifts caused by the vibrating surface. One of the first considerations is how bright the detection laser must be to detect the laser-generated ultrasound. To estimate this, one must...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006474
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... levels and has been successfully used in tests for bother screening and instrument and organ visualization when guiding needles were used for performing biopsies. One application receiving attention is through-transmission ultrasound applied to breast imaging. A schematic for a holographic imaging...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.9781627081900
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of cracks that may be more perpendicular to the part surface than parallel to the surface. The angle can be changed by coupling the transducer to various angle wedges in order to obtain the optimal UT signal path. The beam angle can also be changed with modern Phased Array Ultrasound Testers (PAUT) that can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006438
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... metals or material Can detect flaws up to 1 4 inch below surface under good conditions Iron and steel, nickel, cobalt Ultrasonic UT—phased array, guided wave, wave-field, EMAT, magnetostrictive (MS) piezoelectric High-frequency vibrations are introduced into sample. Waves are reflected...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... the amplitude and phase of the coil current. Certain directional movements in the vector point on the screen representing phase changes between coil current and voltage are associated with well-defined effects, such as lift-off effect (the up and down movement of the coil) and the edge effect (coil approaching...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005628
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
.... However, certain solid-phase reactions may occur in this region, which may alter the structure and strength of this region. In addition, the region of the HAZ adjacent to the fusion line may experience grain-boundary melting, and it is termed the partial-melting zone. Partial-Melting Zone Although...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... demonstrated with a number of different types of energy beams, such as ultrasound, electrons, protons, α-particles, lasers, and microwaves. In industrial nondestructive evaluations (NDEs), however, only x-ray computed tomography (XCT) is considered to have widespread value. For this reason, XCT is also...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... an advantage over, for example, phased array ultrasonic inspection, which is generally done from the side opposite to the defective side of the sample. Surface-breaking features such as gage corner cracking in railway tracks ( Ref 38 ) or fatigue cracking ( Ref 39 , 40 ) can be analyzed by looking...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006464
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...-phase thermography. The article concludes with a discussion on the use of thermal methods for thermal diffusivity measurement and characterization of multilayer structures. lock-in thermography nondestructive evaluation pulsed-phase thermography signal-processing method steady-state heat...