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Book Chapter

By Justin Heimsch
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... technology. It took almost a quarter century of investigation before semisolid metal casting matured into a fully commercialized process ( Ref 1 ). At the heart of all semisolid metal casting processes is the need for material comprised of a globular solid phase surrounded by a lower-melting-point liquid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... by dislocation glide, twinning, phase transformations, climb of dislocations, grain-boundary sliding, and diffusion of point defects. Which of these deformation processes is activated depends largely on intrinsic properties, for example, the Peierls stress, and extrinsic factors such as temperature and imposed...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... to the voltage required for melting Phase balancing system: needed because the induction furnace is a single-phase device, but the power is supplied from a three-phase system Power factor correction capacitor bank, needed to compensate for the amount of metal in the furnace and refractory wear (which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... cannot achieve this H 2 level because H 2 partitions to the steam phase, which begins to form about a quarter of the way up the fuel rods. Thus, radiolysis is relevant to BWR water chemistry. There are a number of sequential and nonlinear dependencies that must be considered, for example, radiation...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005196
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Modifying 60 Hz line frequency supplied by utility company to serve as power supply for induction furnaces Protection of the furnace and the power system, phase balancing, and power correction are required in order to operate an effective installation. The typical 60 Hz (line frequency) power supply...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... to accomplish closed loop control of materials testing systems in performing standard materials tests and for the development of custom testing applications. It explores the advanced software tools for materials testing. The article includes a description of baseline isothermal fatigue testing, creep-fatigue...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... distribution, elastoplastic and elastoviscoplastic formulations were used. Microstructural evolution, including phase transformation and grain-size evolution, was implemented. Distortion during heat treatment and material removal during machining processes can thus be predicted. During the 1990s, most...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... a capability for heat treatment and machining ( Ref 8 ). To track the residual-stress distribution, elastoplastic and elastoviscoplastic formulations were used. Microstructural evolution, including phase transformation and grain-size evolution, was implemented. Distortion during heat treatment and material...
Book Chapter

By P.H. Shipway
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006414
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... to the extent that the surfaces lose contact in each cycle. This leads to a hammering effect, termed “impact fatigue.” In this case, the phase relationship between the two motions can be an important factor. Other terms used to designate fretting-type damage are “false brinelling,” which is particularly...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003502
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... as a sequence of phases, such as shown in Fig. 2 , beginning with a perceived need and finishing with the detailed description of a particular technical system or product ( Ref 1 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 ). As represented in Fig. 2 , each phase involves activities intended to result in particular outcomes...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... the tooling, the top and bottom spindle lock nuts are removed and the outboard housing is pulled off the spindles. The tooling can then be removed and replaced with the desired profile. Side-by-Side Machines Side-by-side machines ( Fig. 3 ) are designed for multiple-profiled tooling and provide...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... is preferred. Hydrogen-nitrogen mixtures, exothermic gas, endothermic gas, and dissociated ammonia result in nitriding or carburizing, which degrades magnetic properties. Development of alloys for use in magnetic applications requires knowledge of phase diagrams. Single-phase alloys are most commonly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005925
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... should be considered in design of the temperature-measuring system if it is to be used at or above approximately 2150 °C (3900 °F). At this temperature, beryllia undergoes a phase change. The problem is not serious in swaged thermocouples when crushable beryllia is used. Thoria, which has a melting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... normal load, but some situations can be complicated by the combined application of an oscillating normal load. This leads to a hammering effect, which is termed impact fatigue. In this case, the phase relationship between the two motions can be an important factor. Other terms that have been used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... Abstract Grain boundaries are interfaces between crystallites of the same phase but different crystallographic orientation. They can be characterized as being low angle or high angle. This article discusses the measurements of grain-boundary energy with a brief summary of different schemes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005628
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
.... However, certain solid-phase reactions may occur in this region, which may alter the structure and strength of this region. In addition, the region of the HAZ adjacent to the fusion line may experience grain-boundary melting, and it is termed the partial-melting zone. Partial-Melting Zone Although...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003255
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... as engineering materials ( Ref 1 ), they can be pure elements, or they can be combinations of different elements (alloys and compounds), molecules (polymers), or phases and materials (composites). All solid materials are typified by the presence of definite bonds between component atoms or molecules. Ultimately...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005604
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... if phase transformation of the material is taken into account, which implies that couplings between structure and material simulation are well within the scope of the procedure. Fig. 1 Subdomains of welding simulation showing the main target and coupling factors. Adapted from Ref 5...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... abnormal grain growth. Rapid, nonuniform, mechanism. bending. The straining of material, usually at and usually undesirable growth of one or a Avrami plot. Plot describing the kinetics of sheet or strip metal, by moving it around a small fraction of grains in a polycrystalline phase transformations...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.9781627081856
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6