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phase contrast imaging

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Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005218
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... by only 10 −5 or less. However, provided that phase contrast could be used, it would help to resolve phases with similar atomic compositions but adequate differences in density. Current state-of-the-art x-ray imaging detectors operate with limiting spatial resolutions similar to optical microscopes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... must be adequate. Image contrast depends on specimen preparation and optics. Differences in light reflectivity from the specimen surface produce amplitude features visible to the eye after magnification. Phase differences created by light reflection must be rendered visible by the use of interference...
Image
Published: 01 December 2004
number). The crack edges appear bright due to the pronounced edge effect. 3000×. (d) Backscattered electron image (primary electron energy, 15 keV) of a plane section showing strong compositional contrast between tungsten carbide (light) and the cobalt binder phase (black). In addition, some orientation More
Image
Published: 01 December 2004
crystal orientation in color image. (d) Phase contrast in color image. All etched with 0.5% HF. All at 200×. More
Image
Published: 01 December 2004
are dark; the intermetallic phases containing heavy elements (Fe, Ni) are bright. 1000×. (c) Backscattered electron image with the same imaging conditions as in (b) but contrasted by a molybdenum oxide layer formed selectively on the silicon particle by dipping the specimem into Mallete's reagent (400 mL More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
.... This type of dye technique can be used with many different types of elastomer- and thermoplastic-modified thermosets to provide contrast between the phases. Fig. 15 Image of a composite cross section dyed with Rhodamine B in solution. Viewed using epi-fluorescence, 390–440 nm excitation, 25...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... appear bright due to the pronounced edge effect. 3000×. (d) Backscattered electron image (primary electron energy, 15 keV) of a plane section showing strong compositional contrast between tungsten carbide (light) and the cobalt binder phase (black). In addition, some orientation contrast exists...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... tomography phase contrast imaging serial sectioning three-dimensional microscopy transmission tomography X-ray fluorescence tomography X-ray microtomography THREE-DIMENSIONAL MICROSCOPY can be used to reveal the shape, distribution, and connectivity of three-dimensional (3D) features that lie...
Image
Published: 31 December 2017
Fig. 1 Microstructural images of commercially available greases without sample preparation, obtained using atomic force microscopy in tapping mode. Images on left: topography (scale in nm); images on right: phase contrast (scale in degrees). (a, b) lithium complex. (c, d) lithium. (e, f More
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 25 Scanning acoustic microscopy surface-mode image at 400 MHz of a manganese-zinc ferrite sample that was polished metallurgically but not chemically etched. The elastic property differences between the various phases of this material are responsible for the contrast shown in this image More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001300
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... phases present highlights the locations in the sample where that phase can be found. Microcracks, grain boundaries, stacking faults, and other defects can also be identified using dark-field imaging techniques ( Ref 27 ). For phase-contrast imaging, the primary and diffracted beams are allowed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... of the SEM compared with other common microscopy and microanalysis techniques. The following sections cover the critical issues regarding sample preparation, the physical principles regarding electron beam-sample interaction, and the mechanisms for many types of image contrast. The article also presents...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... the lateral diffusion time (τ lat ) of the material being imaged. If τ dep were much longer than the τ lat , the resulting contrast temperature would be significantly lower than otherwise. Table 1 provides typical values of the normal and lateral diffusion times for an aluminum panel with two thickness...
Image
Published: 01 January 2006
as contrast due to electron channeling. 1500×. (e) BE image of Ti-6Al-4V showing α-β phase structure. 2500×. (f) BE image of NiTi showing matrix structure with secondary inclusions. 1500×. Co-Cr-Mo images courtesy of S. Megremis; Ti-6Al-4V image courtesy of R. Gettens More
Image
Published: 01 December 1998
Fig. 8 Backscattered electron image showing atomic number contrast in as-cast Cu-Al-Mg alloy. Brightest areas represent phases containing the greatest concentration of high atomic number copper. Darker areas represent phases of progressively lower average atomic number. Courtesy of Joe Michael More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
..., the source of illumination, are transmitted through the sample, which is very thin (“electron transparent”), to generate some form of contrast that enables observation of the internal structure of the sample. The resulting image displays structural detail at very high resolution, of the order of fractions...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... the dark sigma phase identified by the Kikuchi patterns. (b) Backscattered electron Kikuchi pattern. (c) Computer solution of Kikuchi pattern. Courtesy of Joe Michael, Sandia National Laboratories Voltage Contrast and Analysis of Microelectronic Devices Additional types of specialized imaging can...
Image
Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 15 Scanning electron micrographs of a cast Al-11.7Si-1Co-1Mg-1Ni-0.3Fe alloy. (a) Unetched cross section, backscattered electron image. The intermetallic phases are clearly revealed by the compositional contrast. AlFeSiNi appears bright due to the high content of heavy elements; Mg 2 Si More
Image
Published: 01 January 1986
Fig. 26 Grain boundaries revealed by channeling contrast. Images taken in the δ phase at the left side of the sample of Fig. 23 . (a) Secondary electron detector. (b) Backscattered electron detector. Original magnification, 700× More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
.... Standard polishing for metallic samples should be used for these materials, as well. Etchants should be chosen depending on the crystal structure and composition of the phase to be imaged. Nanocrystalline samples consist of randomly oriented crystallites up to 20 nm in diameter surrounded...