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phase contrast imaging

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... microscope, including the illumination system, collector lens, and optical and mechanical components. It describes optical performance in terms of image aberrations, resolution, and depth of field. The article discusses the examination of specimen surfaces using polarized light, phase contrast, oblique...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Serial-Sectioning Case Study Examples Focused Ion Beam Tomography Sectioning Case Study Atom Probe Tomography Principles of Atom Probe Tomography Methods of Representation X-Ray Microtomography General Concepts Transmission Tomography Phase Contrast Imaging Edge Contrast...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005218
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... compositions but adequate differences in density. Current state-of-the-art x-ray imaging detectors operate with limiting spatial resolutions similar to optical microscopes. Hence, for any phase contrast to be resolvable by the camera system, an extremely high degree of transversal coherence of the incident...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001300
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... analysis Table 1 Techniques for microstructural analysis Coating property Technique Phase composition X-ray or electron diffraction Phase distribution Metallographic sections, SEM, TEM, optical microscopy Grain size X-ray diffraction, SEM, TEM (plus image analysis) Grain shape...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
.... Shibata N. , Findlay S.D. , Kohno Y. , Sawada H. , Kondo Y. , and Ikuhara Y. , Differential Phase-Contrast Microscopy at Atomic Resolution , Nature Phys. , Vol 8 , 2012 , p 611 – 615 10.1038/nphys2337 14. Ryll H. , Simson M. , Hartmann R. , Holl...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
..., the source of illumination, are transmitted through the sample, which is very thin (“electron transparent”), to generate some form of contrast that enables observation of the internal structure of the sample. The resulting image displays structural detail at very high resolution, of the order of fractions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...% for gold-platinum ( Ref 1 ). In order to minimize influences of topographic contrast, the specimen should be flat and well polished for compositional imaging. Compositional contrast is useful for qualitative identification of phases and is especially suitable for qualitative evaluation of microstructural...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...- and thermoplastic-modified thermosets to provide contrast between the phases. Fig. 15 Image of a composite cross section dyed with Rhodamine B in solution. Viewed using epi-fluorescence, 390–440 nm excitation, 25× objective. The use of the dye was necessary to distinguish the multiple phases within...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Dwell Time Digital images Charge Contrast Voltage Contrast Magnetic Contrast Channeling Contrast Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) is an SEM-based approach capable of determining the local crystal structure, including phase and orientation, to map microstructure. Electron...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... atomic number as bright; portions of the sample surface with lower average atomic number appear darker ( Fig. 8 ). Fig. 8 Backscattered electron image showing atomic number contrast in as-cast Cu-Al-Mg alloy. Brightest areas represent phases containing the greatest concentration of high atomic...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... microstructural phases and compounds by their crystal structures Characterizing preferred crystallographic orientations by analysis of orientations of individual grains Secondary electron imaging of surface topography: ∼10 nm Backscattered electron imaging of atomic number contrast: ∼1 μm X-ray...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... depending on the orientation of the adjacent domains. (b) Opposite contrast is found when the lens current is lowered below the in-focus amount (underfocused). Fig. 33 A ray diagram illustrating the Foucault imaging of magnetic domains using a transmission electron microscope. The Lorentz force...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... ) of the material being imaged. If τ dep were much longer than the τ lat , the resulting contrast temperature would be significantly lower than otherwise. Table 1 provides typical values of the normal and lateral diffusion times for an aluminum panel with two thickness values and with flat bottom holes...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... width on the CRT; D ′ the CRT screen width. W and D are determined by 2θ B and γ, respectively. Fig. 26 Grain boundaries revealed by channeling contrast. Images taken in the δ phase at the left side of the sample of Fig. 23 . (a) Secondary electron detector. (b) Backscattered electron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003720
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... for viewing microstructures are different for LM and SEM. Many microstructures, for example, tempered martensite, exhibit poor contrast in the SEM and are best viewed by light microscopy. When atomic number contrast or topographic contrast is strong, the SEM provides good structural images, particularly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006660
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... contrast image produced by measuring the pattern contrast in the EBSD pattern from each pixel. (b) Ferrite inverse pole figure (IPF) horizontal direction. (c) Austenite IPF horizontal direction. (d) Austenite IPF vertical direction Fig. 15 Pole figures produced from the electron backscatter...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006644
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...) Simulation of pure orientation contrast of a 5 c superscrew dislocation Fig. 8 Schematic diagrams of (a) reflection and (b) transmission Berg-Barrett techniques of topography Fig. 9 Schematic diagram of the Lang projection technique. The topograph image due to Kα 1 alone is recorded...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... and (b) mechanochemical polish Fig. 3 (a) Bright-field image of SiSiC. 200×. (b) Dark-field image of SiSiC. 200×. (c) Differential interference contrast illumination image of SiSiC. 200× Fig. 1 Gray-level threshold for a porous steatite ceramic sample Fig. 2 Phase analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.9781627081771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... of pixels that belong to the phase being analyzed A A Area fraction N 0 , total number of pixels in the image L A Length per unit area L A = L t A 0 L t , total length of edges of all the objects selected using guard frame A 0 , total section area...