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phase contrast illumination

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
.... Danielson) Fig. 47 Zircaloy 4 as-cast ingot. Use of attack polishing, heat tinting (425 °C, or 800 °F), and differential interference contrast illumination reveals the basic crystal structure and the iron-chromium second phase. 200×. (P.E. Danielson) Fig. 48 Nickel 200 specimen fatigued...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.9781627081771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... viewed using bright-field illumination as compared to the carbon fibers. 10× objective It is often found that polymeric matrices in composite materials do not display much contrast when viewed using the aforementioned reflected-light techniques. As a consequence, dyes that bind to various phases...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...×. Fig. 3 Zircaloy 4 as-cast ingot. (a) Center section. Attack polished, heat tinted, etchant procedure No. 6, and viewed with differential interference contrast illumination. (b) Midthickness. Attack polished, heat tinted, and viewed with differential interference contrast illumination...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
..., montage. (c) 3k-70 woven carbon fabric laminate. Bright-field illumination, 5× objective, montage Fig. 2 Composite materials made from different types of fibers. (a) Woven glass fiber fabric composite revealing a multiphase-matrix morphology. Ultrathin section, transmitted-light phase contrast...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... and (b) mechanochemical polish Fig. 3 (a) Bright-field image of SiSiC. 200×. (b) Dark-field image of SiSiC. 200×. (c) Differential interference contrast illumination image of SiSiC. 200× Fig. 1 Gray-level threshold for a porous steatite ceramic sample Fig. 2 Phase analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003464
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... light microscopy methods use several contrast-enhancement methods that are not commonly used in metallurgical reflective microscopy. These methods include bright field; polarized light; phase contrast; differential interference contrast (DIC), also known as Nomarski; modulation contrast, also known...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006684
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... stand above or below the matrix phase and can be easily observed, particularly if differential interference contrast illumination (DIC) is used. However, bright-field illumination is the starting point for examination of a polished specimen and after etching, and is the most commonly used examination...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003749
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... sequentially with specific etchants to reveal certain constituents. Network etching Formation of networks (subgrain boundaries), especially in mild steels after etching in nitric acid Optical etching Develops the microstructure by using special illumination techniques (dark-field, phase contrast...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009083
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... light, phase contrast, 40× objective. (b and c) Transmitted light, phase contrast, 20× objective Fig. 4 Solvent-generated voids in the prepreg skins and fillet areas of a honeycomb sandwich structure composite. (a and b) Bag side. (c) Tool side. Epi-bright-field illumination, 5× objective...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003752
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
.... The specimen was brought back to room temperature, cleaned, and viewed with Nomarski differential interference contrast illumination without etching. Fig. 15 Microstructure of high-density polyethylene containing a filler revealed using a polished specimen and Nomarski differential interference...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... have been developed, but their use is infrequent. Metallurgical microscopes differ from biological microscopes primarily in the manner by which the specimen is illuminated. Unlike biological microscopes, metallurgical microscopes must use reflected light. Figure 15 is a simplified ray diagram...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009082
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... illumination, 25× objective Fig. 7 An area in Fig. 5 viewed using reflected-light phase contrast with the same magnification as Fig. 6 . Notice the shading on the outer edges of the micrograph due to this contrast technique. Fig. 8 Transmitted-light microscopy of the natural fiber...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009076
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... max = λ ε ω NA| ε 2 − ω 2 | where λ is the illumination in nanometers, ϵ is the RI of the major axis of the structure, and ω is the RI of the minor axis of the structure. Maximize contrast by use of a green filter for the best effect when phase-contrast microscopy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003272
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... for the Knoop test as a function of applied force (load) and Knoop hardness Fig. 21 Knoop indents in ferrite (dark) and austenite (white) grains in a dual-phase stainless steel (differential interference contrast illumination, aqueous 20% nitric acid, 3 V dc). 500× Fig. 22 Knoop indents (50...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... interference contrast (DIC) light micrograph of cast U-6.0Nb showing two-phase lamellar structure resulting from monotectoid decomposition of the α phase. Electropolished with 5% H 3 PO 4 , electroetched using procedure 2 in Table 5 . 1000×. Courtesy of A. Kelly Fig. 52 Bright-field micrograph of U...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... magnification examination a deeper etch yields better image contrast. Some etchants produce selective results in that only one phase will be attacked or colored. A vast number of etchants have been developed; the more commonly used etchants will be listed in this article (see also ASTM E 407). Macroetching...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Fig. 11 Micrograph of crack propagation through a dispersed-phase, rubber-toughened thermoset-matrix composite after impact. Transmitted-light phase contrast, 40× objective Fig. 12 Fracture morphology in a particle interlayer-toughened thermoset-matrix composite. (a) Strain birefringence...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... all of the structure at first. Later, it may be useful to use a selective etchant that reveals only the phase or constituent of interest or at least produces strong contrast or color differences between two or more phases present, to improve the precision of microstructural measurements or to better...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009080
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... and interlayer regions. Bright-field illumination, 10× objective Fig. 9 Higher-magnification views of the composite cross section shown in Fig. 8 . (a) Reflected light, phase contrast, 25× objective. (b) Bright-field illumination, 50× objective Fig. 10 After chemical etching, another phase...