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phase contrast illumination

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006684
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... different hardness and polishing rate than the surrounding metal. They will either stand above or below the matrix phase and can be easily observed, particularly if differential interference contrast illumination (DIC) is used. However, bright-field illumination is the starting point for examination of a...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract This article describes testing and characterization methods of ceramics for chemical analysis, phase analysis, microstructural analysis, macroscopic property characterization, strength and proof testing, thermophysical property testing, and nondestructive evaluation techniques...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... features. Different phase constituents of a microstructure often have different etch rates. Therefore, microstructures can be studied, defined, and identified by a combination of metallographic sample preparation and SEM imaging using topographic contrast. The SEM micrographs are usually recorded with the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006671
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... in sample preparation. Frequently, phases and structures that are difficult to show using other microstructural techniques can be distinguished in thin sections. A number of different contrast techniques can reveal structure. Often, slight differences in chemistry can cause a significant difference...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004018
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract Plastic deformation can occur in metals from various mechanisms, such as slip, twinning, diffusion creep, grain-boundary sliding, grain rotation, and deformation-induced phase transformations. This article emphasizes on the mechanism of slip and twinning under cold working conditions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006660
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract The electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique has proven to be very useful in the measurement of crystallographic textures, orientation relationships between phases, and both plastic and elastic strains. This article focuses on backscatter diffraction in a scanning electron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006471
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... ultrasound phased array transducers, magnetostriction transducers, and couplants. The article discusses four basic types of search units with piezoelectric transducers. These include the straight-beam contact type, the angle-beam contact type, the dual-element contact type, and the immersion type. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Abstract This article illustrates the three techniques for producing glassy metals, namely, liquid phase quenching, atomic or molecular deposition, and external action technique. Devitrification of an amorphous alloy can proceed by several routes, including primary crystallization, eutectoid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... thresholding ) assigns specific contrast values to the image (0 to 255 gray levels). The most accurate and precise method for properly thresholding an image is to use a gray-level histogram. Figure 1 shows a porous steatite ceramic sample and the corresponding gray-level histogram. The darker phase (porosity...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... appropriate procedures exist. In multiphase alloys, the rates of polishing of different phases often are not the same. Polishing results depend heavily on whether the second or third phases are strongly cathodic or anodic with respect to the matrix. The matrix is dissolved preferentially if the other...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000621
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... (870 °F) in flowing argon, aged for 24 h at 120 °C (250 °F) to develop peak hardness, and then tested in fatigue. Sample electropolished in a mixture of perchloric acid, ethanol, butyl cellusolve, and water and observed under phase-contrast illumination. SEM, 200× (R.E. Ricker, University of Notre Dame...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006447
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... stereo measurement (size and depth), three-dimensional phase measurement, and creation of three-dimensional maps of the inspected area ( Fig. 19 , 20 , 21 ). Videoscopes range from simple entry-level to high-end industrial equipment with laser illumination and a scope length up to 30 m (100 ft) with...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... the wave propagation in a crystalline specimen. Waves reinforce one another when they are in phase (constructive interference) and cancel one another if they are out of phase (destructive interference), which is well known as the wave theory. The reinforcement of the electron waves in the crystalline...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... be used that reveals all of the structure at first. Later, it may be useful to use a selective etchant that reveals only the phase or constituent of interest or at least produces strong contrast or color differences between two or more phases present, to improve the precision of microstructural...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003240
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... evaluation optical holography scanning acoustical holography HOLOGRAPHY is basically a two-step process for creating a whole image—that is, a three-dimensional image—of a diffusely reflecting object having some arbitrary shape. In the first step, both the amplitude and phase of any type of coherent...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
.... Total surface roughness in the image area should not exceed approximately 6 μm for many systems. Typical applications for AFM include: High-resolution three-dimensional surface topography Roughness measurements for polished surfaces Analysis of microscopic phase distribution in polymers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006644
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... topographic image representing a defect profile across the thickness of the crystal. The two sets of wavefields produced within the Borrmann fan are successively in and out of phase at the base of the fan, resulting in Pendellösung fringes on the corresponding section topograph from perfect crystals ( Fig. 7b...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... light and DIC are very useful for revealing topographic (relief) effects. For example, Fig. 16 shows a fatigue crack in an aluminum alloy viewed with bright-field illumination and DIC where the specimen was not etched. Although the second-phase precipitates can be seen in both views, they are more...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006474
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... system for optical holography, except for the method of readout. The basic system for scanning acoustical holography is shown in Fig. 4 . No reference-beam transducer is required in this system, because electronic phase detection is used to produce the hologram; that is, the required...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005342
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... microscopic features of the fracture are typically similar to wrought alloys, but can be more complex and in most cases it is essential for the analyst to have knowledge about the details of the microstructure as the phases, constituents, and anomalies in the alloy will influence the characteristics of the...