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petroleum refining

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... and nonferrous alloys used in petroleum refining and petrochemical applications. The article reviews the mechanical properties, fabricability, and corrosion resistance of refinery steels. It describes low- and high-temperature corrosion, hydrogen embrittlement, and cracking such as stress-corrosion, sulfide...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003700
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Conference on Process Plant Reliability , Gulf Publishing , 1995 , p 3 Selected References Selected References General refinery information • “Petroleum Refining Processes,” OSHA Technical Manual, Section IV, Chapter 2, www.osha-slc.gov/dts/osta/otm/otm_iv/otm_iv_2.html , November 2000...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003707
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... inhibitors are oil and gas exploration and production, petroleum refining, chemical manufacturing, heavy manufacturing, water treatment, and the product additive industries. The total consumption of corrosion inhibitors in the United States has doubled from approximately $600 million in 1982 to nearly $1.1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006407
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... in petroleum-base stocks, with respect to molecular species and refining techniques, gives rise to oils of differing physical and chemical properties. Essentially all oils are additive-enhanced for both viscosity retention and performance improvement. Synthetic hydrocarbon fluids (SHC) are manufactured...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... in distillation. A relatively consistent melting and softening material with hydrophobic properties suitable for an asphaltic coating material can be produced by further refining and distillation. However, because it is derived mainly from refined petroleum distillation, this makes asphalts more easily dissolved...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004144
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
.... This Section discusses corrosion problems and methods of control used in petroleum production, in storage and transportation of oil and gas (including external and internal corrosion of pipelines), and in the refining industry. A useful summary of the industry standards is also presented. Corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003806
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... tool, along with proper alloy selection, in reducing corrosion failures. Petroleum Refining/Hydrocarbon Processing A principal concern in petroleum refining and hydrocarbon processing is the problem of the interaction of hydrogen with the low-alloy steels used in these applications. Prolonged...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... used methods for ultrapurification of metals produced by electrolytic processes, including fractional crystallization, zone refining, vacuum melting, distillation, chemical vapor deposition, and solid state refining techniques. In addition, it describes the trace element analysis and resistance-ratio...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006405
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
.... The methods of their synthesis are shown in Fig. 4 . Alkylbenzenesulfonic acids are obtained by sulfonating alkylbenzenes. The products obtained by sulfonating alkylaromatics from petroleum refining are referred to as natural sulfonates, and those obtained by sulfonating alkylaromatics from the catalytic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... a substantial amount of oil via association, inhibit oil flow, and ultimately hinder proper lubrication of the equipment. Base-oil suppliers remove most of the wax during petroleum refining. However, complete dewaxing of base oils is not practical due to process limitations, economics, and the desirable...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003150
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... The nonautomotive applications of platinum-group metals are also numerous. The petroleum refining industry uses platinum-group metals, principally platinum, in reforming, cracking, and isomerization reactions. Other platinum-group catalyst applications include the synthesis of nitric acid and hydrogen cyanide using...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract The melting process often includes refining and treating the metal. The choice of which type of melting to use depends on a number of factors: type of alloy being melted, the local cost of electric power, and local environmental regulations. This article discusses the principles...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... quenchants polyvinyl alcohol polyvinyl pyrrolidone quenching steel QUENCHING OF STEEL is the rapid cooling of steel from a suitable elevated temperature. This generally is accomplished by immersion of the hot steel into a vaporizable fluid such as water; petroleum, vegetable, or animal oil; aqueous...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004113
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...) and underground storage tanks (USTs). Aboveground tanks are common means for storing liquid hydrocarbon products such as crude oil, aviation fuels, diesel fuel, gasoline, and other refined products. Underground tanks are often used for dispensing and storage of home heating oil, gasoline, and diesel fuel...
Book Chapter

By Rob Bosman
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006381
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... be divided into two main categories: mineral oils and synthetic oils. Mineral oils are the most applied (>80%) and are obtained from crude oil distillation and additional refinement. The different refinement processes give different oil grades, which are defined by the American Petroleum Institute ( Table...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001276
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., cleanable parts of complex design; preservation of antifriction bearings MIL-C-15074 Corrosion preventive, fingerprint remover A mixture of organic solvents, petroleum solvents, and inhibitors Removal of fresh fingerprint residues; temporary corrosion prevention MIL-C-16173  Grades 1 and 1A...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... weldments The Cr-Mo steels are preferred in the construction of high-temperature components because they possess excellent strength, toughness, and corrosion resistance relative to carbon steels and most low-alloy steels. Components fabricated from Cr-Mo steels serve in the petroleum, petrochemical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001050
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
..., superalloy property attainment is principally a function of the amount and morphology of the γ′, grain size and shape, and carbide distribution. Early superalloys contained less than 25 vol% γ′. However, commercial vacuum induction refining and casting provided the opportunity for greater γ′ volume fraction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003699
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... wells, which produce mainly gaseous hydrocarbons, and gas-condensate wells, which produce significant quantities of liquid hydrocarbons, sometimes water, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and methane at high pressures from high-temperature reservoirs. Lower- pressure gas wells sometimes incorporate artificial...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001355
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... to weld carbon, low-alloy steel, and stainless steels in the construction of pressure vessels and piping for the chemical processing, petroleum refining, and power-generation industries. In addition, flux-cored electrodes are used to weld some nickel-base alloys. Flux-cored electrodes are also used...