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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... a shutdown, corrosion can be caused by pockets of water left in the process units and associated piping. Most petroleum refining and petrochemical plant operations involve flammable hydrocarbon streams, highly toxic or explosive gases, and strong acids or caustics that are often at elevated temperatures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004144
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... of construction to practical applications. The industries addressed are nuclear power, fossil and alternative fuel, land transportation, air transportation, microelectronics, chemical processing, pulp and paper, food and beverage, pharmaceutical and medical technology, petroleum and petrochemical, building...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... by passing an exam or learning a new technique. It can be achieved only over a period of time exposed to the relevant operating plant. Some standards bodies, such as the American Petroleum Institute (API), organize courses and examinations that prospective inspectors must complete satisfactorily before...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... on the Prenflo (Krupp-Uhde) process in Spain, and a plant based on the Shell process in the Netherlands. All present plants include entrained slagging gasifiers and cold-gas cleanup equipment. In this type of gasifier, the fuel—coal, petroleum coke, or heavy oil bottoms—are pulverized and fed to the gasifier...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005296
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Bessemer, who patented a process for “manufacture of continuous sheets of iron and steel” in 1846 and made plant trials on continuous casting of steel in the 1890s ( Ref 2 ). Although continuous casting had its start before the beginning of the 20th century, it was not until the mid-1930s in Germany...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... to increase as the water temperature increases. Estimated corrosion rate data of carbon steel under insulation plotted in Fig. 2 that were obtained from actual plant case histories confirm that the rate increases with temperature in a manner similar to that of a closed system ( Ref 3 ). It is inferred...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
...Abstract Abstract Corrosion monitoring is important in the operation of modern industrial plants and in the use and maintenance of expensive assets such as bridges and aircrafts, because the damage caused by corrosion and the rate of the deterioration can be huge and the risks devastating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002387
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... assessment, repair, maintenance, and life extension of various engineering components used in power plants, chemical processing plants, and refineries. Major costs are associated with each of these steps, and cost-effective implementation of failure control can be viewed, in general terms, from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003659
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
...Abstract Abstract This article describes the criteria for selecting a corrosion-monitoring method used in industrial plants. It provides a detailed discussion on the design, advantages, and disadvantages of plant corrosion-testing program. The basic types of racks used to support and insulate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003356
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... advantages over petroleum-based materials, making them an attractive alternative. Natural oils, which can be derived from both plant and animal sources, are abundantly found in all parts of the world, making them an ideal alternative chemical feedstock. These oils are predominantly made up of triglyceride...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001276
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., cleanable parts of complex design; preservation of antifriction bearings MIL-C-15074 Corrosion preventive, fingerprint remover A mixture of organic solvents, petroleum solvents, and inhibitors Removal of fresh fingerprint residues; temporary corrosion prevention MIL-C-16173  Grades 1 and 1A...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... sheets can be formed dry. In more severe situations, additional lubrication is needed. Lubricants applied at the pressworking plant must be chosen for compatibility. For example, PVC is attacked by chlorine-containing lubricants. In general, water-base lubricants, mainly waxes, are preferred; often...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003670
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... micro-organisms. Biological slimes are commonly found in the water phases of industrial process plants ( Fig. 2 ). A wide range of common bacteria (e.g., Pseudomonas and Flavobacterium ) can secrete large amounts of organic material under both aerobic and oxygen-free (anaerobic) conditions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...; the two principal ones are: Steam reforming of natural gas or other light hydrocarbons (natural gas liquids, liquefied petroleum gas, naphtha). Modified steam reforming using excess air in the secondary reformer and heat-exchange autothermal reforming are also being used to some extent. Partial...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001240
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...Abstract Abstract Grinding is an extremely complex process that requires the consideration of a number of elements in order to make a reasonably adroit initial selection of a fluid or fluids for a manufacturing plant. In addition, the disposal of grinding wastes must meet the minimum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003806
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... containing varying amounts of many of the constituents mentioned previously. In energy conversion systems, contaminants in coal, oil, and natural gas result in the accelerated attack of low-alloy steels at elevated temperatures. In steam-generating electric power plants, corrosion due to impurities...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001224
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... organic solvent process selection criteria secondary cleaning solvent waste solvent waste disposal spray cleaning EMULSION CLEANING is an industrial cleaning process that uses an organic solvent as the main active agent. The solvent is usually a hydrocarbon of distilled petroleum dispersed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004113
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... when the tank is emptied. Supplemental galvanic CP is frequently used in crude tanks. The use of inhibitors in petroleum facilities is discussed in the articles “Corrosion Inhibitors for Oil and Gas Production” and “Corrosion Inhibitors for Crude Oil Refineries” in Volume 13A. Soil-Side...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004150
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... wastes are also important, and there are now plants and trees that are being specifically grown for fuel use. Various wastes, such as industrial wastes and municipal solid wastes (MSWs), are increasingly being used as fuels. These fuels also contain impurities of one kind or another; waste wood...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... exchangers … Aqua regia Ore solution, stainless steel pickling Chemical, steel Bayonet heaters, heat exchangers, pickling tank coils … Aviation gasoline Butane isomerization Petroleum Anhydrous HCl plants … Benzoic acid Hydrolysis from benzyl chloride Chemical, pharmaceutical HCl...