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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... Abstract This article discusses the environmental influences on protective coating films that can result in deterioration. These environmental factors can be classified into four groups: (1) energy: solar, heat; (2) permeation: moisture, solvent, chemical, and gas; (3) stress: drying and curing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003844
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... energy (solar radiation, heat and temperature variation, and nuclear radiation), permeation (moisture, solvent retention, chemical, and oxygen), stress (drying and curing, vibration, and impact and abrasion), and biological influences (microbiological and macrobiological). coatings paints...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003847
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... 75 to 95 Shore A durometer hardness. The hardness is accomplished with a combination of higher levels of sulfur for a higher cross-link density and filler loading. The higher cross-link density gives higher temperature resistance and lower permeation rates. In general, these linings are not used for...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003229
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... Penetration occurs as a result of a pressure differential between the two regions, or of permeation of a somewhat extended barrier. The term “leak” commonly refers to an actual discontinuity or passage through which a fluid flows or permeates. Two basic types of leaks are real leaks and virtual leaks...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003848
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... property retention Appearance change Breakthrough time (from initial chemical contact to detection) Permeation rate Table 10 gives the detailed numerical values that determine the rating. Table 10 PDL composite rating system Weighted value Weight change Volume change Hardness...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003840
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... degradation. The coating must remain intact to provide such protection. Coating integrity tends to be influenced by a combination of factors, including: Chemical compatibility between the coating and the environment in contact with it Permeation of the environment into and through the coating to the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001319
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... beyond simple adhesion improvement. The diverse applications include biocompatibility, permeation control of films, corrosion resistance of metal surfaces, and hard coats or abrasion-resistant coatings for plastic substrates. Plasma-polymerized films have been successfully used for developing gas...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005944
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
..., certain disadvantages exist. Steel is lighter than lead; therefore the tool to be quenched must be held down in the bath. Secondly, the ready oxidation of the molten metal surface is an adverse factor. It should be noted that the oxide formed is not very soluble in lead so that it does not permeate the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... that cannot withstand such conditions over the long term. Polyvinylidene fluoride-based coatings are chemically inert. In addition, they possess several other intrinsic properties that contribute to their excellent corrosion resistance, such as: Low permeation rate of oxygen, moisture, and...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627081801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006070
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... surface, if present, will increase the rate and extent of corrosion. Where such salts are entrapped beneath a coating, and where water can ultimately permeate the coating to dissolve the salt, osmotic blistering and aggressive corrosion of the substrate may occur. Osmosis is a physical process in which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... with two of the reagents. When chemical resistance is an important property desired for an FEVE-based coating, the use of the FEVE resin with the highest cross-link density is suggested. Resistance to water vapor permeation is also a key property of the FEVE resin products. This attribute is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003842
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... less than 1200 °C (2200 °F). The network of silicon and oxygen atoms is sufficiently open so that there are channels for diatomic oxygen to permeate the silica. Based on this concept, Deal and Grove ( Ref 4 ) derived the following expression for the parabolic rate constant: (Eq 9) B = 2 D...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.9781627082907
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... environment permeate into the polymer easily. Like metals, ESC requires three factors to be present simultaneously: a susceptible polymer, an aggressive environment/chemical, and a sufficient level of stress, which can be both residual and external. Craze cracking is usually associated with ESC. In ESC...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006037
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
..., harder with more cross linking has better chemical resistance) and, if formulated without aromatic molecules, have good UV properties. One other advantage of this chemistry is that the recoat window can be very long as a consequence of the ability of the monomer to swell and subsequently permeate and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005686
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... molecular weight distributions (MWDs). The most common analytical tool for measuring MWD is gel permeation chromatography, where the polymer molecules in a dilute solution are separated according to their hydrodynamic volume when forced through a column of microporus gel particles. Subtle changes in MWD can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001278
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... performance is to keep the average molecular weight of these materials greater than 80,000, as measured by gel permeation chromatography. Examples described in Ref 23 show coatings having typical elongations of 80 to 150%. In addition, coatings made from the polyesters showed durability superior to that of...
Book Chapter

By Donald M. Mattox
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001289
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... TiN on semiconductor devices) Deposition of insulating films (for example, SiO 2 and ZrO 2 ) Deposition of optically clear, electrically conducting layers (indium-tin-oxide) ( Ref 112 ) Deposition of permeation barriers on webs ( Ref 113 , 114 , 115 ) Ion plating has also been used to...