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permanent deformation

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Published: 01 January 2000
Fig. 14 Schematic illustrating the possible mechanisms of permanent deformation ahead of the notch tip. (a) Cyclic plastic zone typical of metals. (b) Cyclic damage zone typical of ceramics. (c) Craze or shear-band zones typical of polymer. Source: Ref 43 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
...Abstract Abstract Forge welding is a solid-state joining process in which the workpieces are heated to the welding temperature and then sufficient blows or force are applied to cause permanent deformation and bonding at the faying surfaces. Coextrusion welding is a solid-state process...
Image
Published: 01 January 1997
Fig. 21 Schematic results of an elevated-temperature creep test in which a material permanently deforms at a constant stress. As indicated, increasing stress and/or temperature increases the creep strain and the creep rate ( d ε/ dt ). Source: Ref 4 More
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
other and results in permanent deformation rather than fracture. More
Image
Published: 01 January 1997
Fig. 25 Schematic of logic employed in design against “failure”. Failure can take place by either material permanent deformation or fracture. Thus design entails comparing the 2% offset yield strength (σ y ) to the nominal stress at which fracture occurs (σ F ), and then using the lower More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001377
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... the workpieces are heated to the welding temperature and then applied with blows sufficient to cause permanent deformation at the faying surfaces. It is most commonly applied to the butt welding of steels. As contrasted with hot pressure (thermocompression) welding of ductile face-centered cubic (fcc) metals...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
.... From the standpoint of mechanical behavior, the yield strength and fracture toughness of a material are the most important of the structure-sensitive properties. The yield strength is the applied stress required to initiate material permanent deformation. The fracture toughness is a measure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
...; that is, they are a result of thermomechanical processing. Annealing is an essential treatment in the fabrication of metal parts and semiproducts, strongly affecting most of the important materials properties, such as mechanical strength, formability, and anisotropy. In principle, a deformed material is in a higher...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006488
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... as the two main methods of MMC solidification processing. It describes the MCC casting methods, such as sand and permanent mold casting, centrifugal casting, compocasting, and high-pressure die casting. The article discusses the MMC infiltration processes in terms of pressure infiltration casting and liquid...
Image
Published: 01 January 1996
Fig. 4 Idealized schematic of the constitutive behavior of a brittle solid in cyclic compression. Path A: Non-linear deformation during compression loading. Path B: The idealized situation where microscopic deformation is fully reversible. Paths C and D: Unloading behavior where permanent strains More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005130
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... mechanical property microstructure plasma torch plates sheets stainless steel thermal forming THERMAL FORMING OF METALS refers to the development of permanent deformation without the application of external mechanical forces. It is based on the fundamental physical principle that most metals...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006282
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
.... These processes require deformation of the metal to produce the desired form or finished product. This ability of a solid to be permanently deformed without rupture is characteristic of metals and a major reason for their wide use. The manner in which metals respond to the external stresses determines...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... whenever the process stresses the material and produces permanent deformation. In structural testing, AE inspection is used on pressure vessels, storage tanks, pipelines and piping, aircraft and space vehicles, electric utility plants, bridges, railroad tank cars, bucket trucks, and a range of other...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... deformation. The mechanisms of this permanent deformation can be as diverse as dislocation plasticity, microcracking, martensitic transformations, creep, interfacial sliding, crazing, or shear flow. Although the basic mechanisms of cyclic crack growth in ceramics are still preliminary and not clearly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003255
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... elastic strain followed by viscous flow. Unloading produces an immediate elastic recovery followed by additional recovery over a period of time. Source: Ref 17 In thermoplastic polymers, permanent deformation occurs via interchain sliding. Strengthening is accomplished by impeding chain sliding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003318
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... with a thermal couple or an infrared sensor. In many polymer systems, the thermal work influenced by high damping and low thermal conductivity contributes to micromechanisms of permanent deformation including craze formation, shear bands, voids, or even microcracks ( Ref 8 ). Fig. 4 Plot showing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... amorphous solids creep testing CREEP DEFORMATION is any permanent inelastic strain that occurs when a material is subjected to a sustained stress. The rate at which this deformation occurs depends not only on the magnitude of the applied stress, but also on time and temperature. Thus...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003254
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... is not unloaded and deformation continues, the stress-versus-strain curve becomes nonlinear. At this point, plastic deformation begins, causing a permanent elongation that will not be recovered after unloading of the specimen. The stress at which a permanent deformation occurs is called the elastic...
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