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peritectics

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... Abstract Similar to the eutectic group of invariant transformations is a group of peritectic reactions, in which a liquid and solid phase decomposes into a solid phase on cooling through the peritectic isotherm. This article describes the equilibrium freezing and nonequilibrium freezing of...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005214
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article describes the three solidification mechanisms of peritectic structures, namely, peritectic reaction, peritectic transformation, and direct precipitation. It discusses the theoretical analysis, which shows that the rate of the peritectic transformation is influenced by the...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... kinetics of microsegregation are discussed for the binary isomorphous systems: titanium-molybdenum; binary eutectic systems: aluminum-copper and aluminum-silicon; binary peritectic systems: copper-zinc; multicomponent eutectic systems: Al-Si-Cu-Mg; and for systems with both eutectic and peritectic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006231
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... triangle for plotting ternary composition and discusses the ternary three-phase phase diagrams by using tie triangles. It describes the peritectic system with three-phase equilibrium and ternary four-phase equilibrium. The article presents representative binary iron phase diagrams, showing ferrite...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... group includes Al 3 Ti, Al 3 Zr, and Al 7 Cr and can be considered to be associated with a peritectic reaction. The second group comprises compounds such as TiC, TiB 2 , and AlB 2 , which are added either intentionally or which result from a chemical reaction in the melt with residual impurities. It is...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005206
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... two groups: decomposition or eutectic-type reactions and formation or peritectic-type reactions. In a binary eutectic ( Fig. 2 ), the liquid decomposes on cooling into two solid phases, and in a peritectic ( Fig. 2 ), the liquid reacts with a solid phase on cooling to form a second solid phase...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003124
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... crystallization of coarse primary particles. The most important liquid-to-solid transformations for aluminum alloys are the eutectic and the peritectic. Examples of phase diagrams illustrating eutectic and peritectic reactions are discussed in the following paragraphs, and phase diagrams for aluminum alloys are...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.... Carbon content is the most notable element and influences columnar dendrites according to the carbon content, as shown in Fig. 15 . This effect is controlled by the peritectic reaction that steel undergoes upon solidification, which is: L + δ → γ where L is the liquid, δ is delta iron, and γ...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005229
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... interdendritic spaces, between grains, and in the bulk liquid. Accounting for phase transformations such as peritectic transformation in steel, eutectic transformation in aluminum alloys, and precipitation Despite the barriers, some success has been achieved at predicting the homogenization behavior in a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006228
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... solid phases of a binary alloy transform into one phase on cooling. Peritectoid reactions are similar to peritectic reactions, except that one of the initial phases is liquid in a peritectic reaction. As in all invariant reactions, peritectoid reactions are reversible; that is, the α + β are recovered...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005210
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... eutectic or peritectic phase, or a compound, depending on the phase diagram. As the composition in the liquid increases further, it is possible to form additional phases depending on the solubility limit for the new phase given by the phase diagram. The formation of a peritectic phase in the intercellular...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006281
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... which the aforementioned bronzes are based. The heat treatability of each of these four types of bronzes is explored in terms of their liquidus temperature, solidus temperature, solid-solution hardening, solvus temperature, freezing range temperature, and phase transformation reactions (e.g., peritectic...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... for different alloys. In alloys such as iron-nickel, where two solid phases compete in the range of the peritectic composition, the microstructures that may form are more complicated. At concentrations below 3.8 at.% Ni, the δ-phase (ferrite) is stable, while at high nickel concentrations, the γ-phase...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005218
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... studies with a selection of transparent, organic model systems available for primary-phase solidification, eutectics, and peritectics displaying morphologies and growth patterns analogous to those found in metals ( Ref 1 ). Such studies have been extensive and contributed to advance theory ( Ref 2 , 3...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... and γ. Another possibility would be if the β phase failed to form instead. The peritectic reaction, L + α → β, would be absent, and primary solidification of α would continue until the eutectic forms between α and γ. For alloy “b” in the case where β fails to form, the microstructure may be a eutectic...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... systems formed between the various elements and zirconium exhibit a peritectic or a peritectoid reaction at the zirconium-rich end. Beta-stabilizing elements lower the α-to-β transformation temperature. Typical β stabilizers include iron, chromium, nickel, molybdenum, copper, niobium, tantalum...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... phase. These and the other various types of invariant reactions observed in binary systems are listed in Table 1 and illustrated in Fig. 7 and 8 . Table 1 Invariant reactions Type Reaction Eutectic (involves liquid and solid) Eutectoid (involves solid only) Peritectic...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003210
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... characterized by a phase diagram that includes a peritectic reaction (for copper-tin alloys) or a minimum in the liquids curve (for gold-nickel alloys), are used primarily in vacuum-brazing applications and, therefore, require no alloying elements to serve as fluxing agents. The third group of alloys, which...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006229
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
..., either congruent or incongruent melting phases. On heating, an incongruent melting phase decomposes into two different phases, usually one solid and one liquid, such as a peritectic transformation. A congruent melting phase melts in the same manner as a pure metal. In this case, the phase diagram is...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... inclusions with detrimental effects on mechanical properties and ductility. At high boron concentrations, borides contribute to furnace sludging, particle agglomeration, and increased risk of casting inclusions. However, boron treatment of aluminum-containing peritectic elements is practiced to improve...