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peritectic reactions

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... Abstract Similar to the eutectic group of invariant transformations is a group of peritectic reactions, in which a liquid and solid phase decomposes into a solid phase on cooling through the peritectic isotherm. This article describes the equilibrium freezing and nonequilibrium freezing of...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005214
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article describes the three solidification mechanisms of peritectic structures, namely, peritectic reaction, peritectic transformation, and direct precipitation. It discusses the theoretical analysis, which shows that the rate of the peritectic transformation is influenced by the...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... eutectic system, Al-Si-Cu-Mg; and, finally, for systems with both eutectic and peritectic reactions, Fe-C-Cr and nickel-base superalloy. For many titanium-base alloys, as-cast microsegregation is close to the minimum—approaching equilibrium—and the observed segregation ratios are close to unity. In those...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006231
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... peritectic reaction. Fig. 24 Three-phase equilibria in a ternary system with a peritectic reaction. Adapted from Ref 3 These relationships are clearly evident in the isotherms of Fig. 25 , which should be compared with those of the previous example ( Fig. 22 ); it can be seen that the tie...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006229
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... Abstract In some phase diagrams, the appearance of several reactions is the result of the presence of intermediate phases. These are phases whose chemical compositions are intermediate between two pure metals, and whose crystalline structures are different from those of the pure metals. This...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.... Carbon content is the most notable element and influences columnar dendrites according to the carbon content, as shown in Fig. 15 . This effect is controlled by the peritectic reaction that steel undergoes upon solidification, which is: L + δ → γ where L is the liquid, δ is delta iron, and γ...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... group includes Al 3 Ti, Al 3 Zr, and Al 7 Cr and can be considered to be associated with a peritectic reaction. The second group comprises compounds such as TiC, TiB 2 , and AlB 2 , which are added either intentionally or which result from a chemical reaction in the melt with residual impurities. It is...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003124
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... crystallization of coarse primary particles. The most important liquid-to-solid transformations for aluminum alloys are the eutectic and the peritectic. Examples of phase diagrams illustrating eutectic and peritectic reactions are discussed in the following paragraphs, and phase diagrams for aluminum alloys are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006228
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... solid phases of a binary alloy transform into one phase on cooling. Peritectoid reactions are similar to peritectic reactions, except that one of the initial phases is liquid in a peritectic reaction. As in all invariant reactions, peritectoid reactions are reversible; that is, the α + β are recovered...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005206
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... two groups: decomposition or eutectic-type reactions and formation or peritectic-type reactions. In a binary eutectic ( Fig. 2 ), the liquid decomposes on cooling into two solid phases, and in a peritectic ( Fig. 2 ), the liquid reacts with a solid phase on cooling to form a second solid phase...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006281
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... which the aforementioned bronzes are based. The heat treatability of each of these four types of bronzes is explored in terms of their liquidus temperature, solidus temperature, solid-solution hardening, solvus temperature, freezing range temperature, and phase transformation reactions (e.g., peritectic...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... and γ. Another possibility would be if the β phase failed to form instead. The peritectic reaction, L + α → β, would be absent, and primary solidification of α would continue until the eutectic forms between α and γ. For alloy “b” in the case where β fails to form, the microstructure may be a eutectic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... alloys and 8 xxx wrought alloys, primary iron-bearing constituents can form if the alloying content is such that the alloy is hypereutectic. In wrought alloys, macroscopically large, undesirable primary particles of Al 7 Cr, Al 3 Ti, or Al 3 Zr can form by a peritectic reaction if chemical composition...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005332
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.... Another important consequence of this nonequilibrium freezing is the fact that the last liquid present during solidification contains much more tin than the nominal composition of the alloy. Thus, the final metal to solidify may actually follow the peritectic reaction. This results in the eventual...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... peritectic reaction. The reaction gives rise to dendritic regions of alpha-two and gamma lamellas (which have evolved from the high-temperature beta and alpha phases) and interdendritic regions of nominally single-phase gamma, which are last to solidify from the melt ( Fig. 3 ). Fig. 2 Portion of the...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003210
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... characterized by a phase diagram that includes a peritectic reaction (for copper-tin alloys) or a minimum in the liquids curve (for gold-nickel alloys), are used primarily in vacuum-brazing applications and, therefore, require no alloying elements to serve as fluxing agents. The third group of alloys, which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006280
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
...% Zn will solidify with a peritectic reaction (liquid + α = β phases in equilibrium) at 902 °C (1656 °F). Many elements are added to the copper or copper-zinc system to affect its strength, corrosion resistance, wear resistance, machinability, and color: Characteristic Alloying in copper and...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... concentrations by peritectic reaction. Grain refinement can be achieved at much lower titanium concentrations than those predicted by the binary aluminum-titanium peritectic point of 0.15%. For this reason, other theories, such as conucleation of the aluminide by TiB 2 or carbides and constitutional effects on...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... phase. These and the other various types of invariant reactions observed in binary systems are listed in Table 1 and illustrated in Fig. 7 and 8 . Table 1 Invariant reactions Type Reaction Eutectic (involves liquid and solid) Eutectoid (involves solid only) Peritectic...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... systems formed between the various elements and zirconium exhibit a peritectic or a peritectoid reaction at the zirconium-rich end. Beta-stabilizing elements lower the α-to-β transformation temperature. Typical β stabilizers include iron, chromium, nickel, molybdenum, copper, niobium, tantalum...