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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006300
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
...Abstract Abstract This article discusses the stable and metastable three-phase fields in the binary Fe-C phase diagram. It schematically illustrates that austenite decomposition requires accounting for nucleation and growth of ferrite and then nucleation and growth of pearlite in the remaining...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001008
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... and the phase transformations that change the structure and properties at varying levels of carbon content. Microstructures described include pearlite, bainite, proeutectoid ferrite and cementite, ferrite-pearlite, and martensite. The article depicts some of the primary processing steps that result in ferrite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... of these factors in both theoretical and practical terms, with particular focus on the role of microstructure in various irons. These include bainite, pearlite, ferfite, martensite, austenite, ferrite-pearlite, ferrite-cementite, ferrite-martensite, graphite, and cementite. The article discusses the evolution...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003090
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... Source: Ref 1 Fig. 1 Ferrite-pearlite microstructure of a typical HSLA structural steel (ASTM A 572, grade 50). 2% nital + 4% picral etch. 200× Fig. 3 Microstructure of a gray cast iron with a ferrite-pearlite matrix. Note the graphite flakes dispersed throughout the matrix. 4...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... °F). Cooling continued from that level at a maximum rate of 130 °C/h (230 °F/h) to 200 °C (390 °F); bars were then air cooled to room temperature. Fig. 7 Conversion of as-cast pearlitic structure of unalloyed gray iron to ferrite and graphite by annealing. (a) As cast; 180 HB. (b) Annealed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... on the metallurgical criteria: to produce solidified white iron throughout the section thickness; and to produce the desired graphite distribution (nodule count) upon annealing. It describes the induction heating and quenching or flame heating and quenching for surface hardening of fully pearlitic malleable iron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... precipitated from the liquid melt. The article describes the macrostructure and dendrite morphology of primary austenite. Eutectoid transformation in the solid state causes the transformation of austenite to pearlite and/or ferrite, producing the as-cast structure. The article discusses the observations...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006347
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... of primary graphite Pipe fittings and valve parts for pressure service Pearlitic and martensitic ASTM A220 40010 Temper carbon in necessary matrix without primary cementite or graphite General engineering service at normal and elevated temperatures. Dimensional tolerance range for castings...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005969
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
...Abstract Abstract This article focuses on heat treatment of malleable and compacted-graphite irons to produce ferritic and pearlitic malleable irons. It describes the heat treatment cycles of malleable iron, including martempering, tempering, bainitic heat treatment, and surface hardening...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... iron: blackheart and whiteheart. This article considers only the blackheart type and describes the metallurgical factors of malleable iron. It discusses the mechanical properties of pearlitic and martensitic malleable irons. The article provides additional information on the properties and heat...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... iron A 220 Pearlitic malleable iron castings A 278 Gray iron castings for pressure-containing parts for temperatures up to 345 °C (650 °F) A 319 Gray iron castings for elevated temperatures for nonpressure-containing parts A 395 Ferritic ductile iron pressure-retaining castings for use...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003734
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... of a monotectoid reaction. Fig. 6 (a) Pearlite nucleation. (b) Colony growth. (c) Deep-etched steel sample showing pearlite colony growth off of proeutectoid cementite plate. Source: (a) and (b) from Ref 4 , p 331, (c) from Ref 6 Fig. 7 Growth of intergranular pearlite nodules (numbered...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... To delineate prior austenite grain boundaries 4% picral + 2% nital Same ingredients as listed above. Etch first in pical then in nital. For ferrite + pearlite microstructures Sodium metabisulfite 8 to 20 g of sodium metabisulfite dilute to 100 mL water Tint etch Oberhoffer's reagent 500 mL water...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002396
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... strength-ductility combinations attainable in commercial steels Fig. 11 Representative strain-life behavior for ferritic-pearlitic and martensitic steels Fig. 12 Fatigue crack growth behavior for representative classes of steel ( Ref 12 , 13 ) Fig. 13 Strain-life behavior...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006334
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
...κ lines for various structural ranges Table 1 κ lines for various structural ranges Bar diameter κ for mottled structure κ for pearlitic structure κ for pearlitic-ferritic structure mm in. 30 1.2 0.65–0.85 0.85–2.05 2.05–3.10 20 0.8 0.75–1.10 1.10–2.25 2.25–3.40...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006312
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
.... The mechanical and physical properties of CGI with ferritic and pearlitic matrix structures are summarized in a table. The article describes the standards for CGI, with the definition of the grades based on the minimum tensile strength. It also provides information on the applications of compacted graphite iron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006322
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... J434 are typical values for separately cast Charpy unnotched samples at RT. (b) Microstructure abbreviations: F, ferrite; P, pearlite; TM, tempered martensite. (c) Grades are listed in simplified format. See text. Customary units are for information and are not part of Ref 2 . Mechanical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006333
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... service Pearlitic and martensitic ASTM A220 40010 Temper carbon in necessary matrix without primary cementite or graphite General engineering service at normal and elevated temperatures. Dimensional tolerance range for castings is stipulated 45008 45006 50005 60004 70003 80002...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006318
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... elements in cast irons. Elements that influence the matrix structure of cast irons are commonly classified as ferrite-promoting elements or pearlite-promoting elements. The article describes the effects of minor elements on microstructure and properties of cast irons. It discusses the use of a combination...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003162
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... hardfacing alloys can be divided into pearlitic steels, austenitic (manganese) steels, martensitic steels, high-alloy irons, and austenitic stainless steel. The types of nonferrous hardfacing alloys include cobalt-base/carbide-type alloys, laves phase alloys, nickel-base/boride-type alloys, and bronze type...