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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Abstract This article discusses the five basic matrix structures in cast irons: ferrite, pearlite, bainite, martensite, and austenite. The alloying elements, used to enhance the corrosion resistance of cast irons, including silicon, nickel, chromium, copper, molybdenum, vanadium, and titanium...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003090
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... steels and cast irons, the microstructural constituents have the names ferrite, pearlite, bainite, martensite, cementite, and austenite. The article presents four examples that have very different microstructures: the structural steel has a ferrite plus pearlite microstructure; the rail steel has a fully...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005922
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
..., and the results of cooling curve analysis. The article schematically summarizes the cooling behaviors of the various cooling media and the microstructure of the pearlite transformation in a lead bath. cooling cooling curve high-carbon steel pearlite transformation steel wire patenting wires...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006228
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... temperature and effective carbon content. The partitioning effect of substitutional alloying elements, such as chromium, manganese, and silicon, in pearlitic steel is also illustrated. alloying elements chromium eutectoid transformation hypereutectoid structure hypoeutectoid structure Iron-carbon...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005326
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... treatment, microstructure, production technologies, mechanical properties, and applications of ferritic, pearlitic, and martensitic malleable iron. iron carbide ferritic malleable iron cast ferrous metal graphite martensitic malleable iron microstructure pearlitic malleable iron temper carbon...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000604
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract This article is an atlas of fractographs that helps in understanding the causes and mechanisms of fracture of pearlitic malleable and ferritic malleable white irons, and in identifying and interpreting the morphology of fracture surfaces. The fractographs illustrate the fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000603
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract This article is an atlas of fractographs that covers pearlitic and ferritic ductile irons. The fractographs display the following: brittle cleavage fracture; fatigue crack propagation; fatigue and monotonic fracture surfaces; fracture modes in slow monotonic loading and impact loading...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003162
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... hardfacing alloys can be divided into pearlitic steels, austenitic (manganese) steels, martensitic steels, high-alloy irons, and austenitic stainless steel. The types of nonferrous hardfacing alloys include cobalt-base/carbide-type alloys, laves phase alloys, nickel-base/boride-type alloys, and bronze type...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003110
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... primary graphite Pipe fittings and valve parts for pressure service Pearlitic and martensitic ASTM A 220 (c) 40010 280M10 Temper carbon in necessary matrix without primary cementite or graphite General engineering service at normal and elevated temperatures. Dimensional tolerance range for...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003246
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... carbides, graphite, martensite, and a variety of intermetallic phases, nitrides, and nonmetallic inclusions. The article further describes the two-phase constituents including, tempered martensite, pearlite, and bainite and nonmetallic inclusions in steel that consist of two or more phases. common...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... cast irons and a white cast iron. As the percentage of ferrite decreases and the pearlite increases, the tool life obtained in machining operations such as turning, face milling, and drilling decreases ( Fig. 1 ). Additionally, the finer the pearlite spacing, the lower the tool life ( Fig. 1...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Table 1 Comparison of properties of cerium-treated CG iron with flake graphite (FG) iron of the same chemical composition, high-strength pearlitic FG iron, and ferritic spheroidal graphite (SG) iron in the as-cast condition Property High-strength pearlitic FG iron (100% pearlite, 100...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... rate, and heat treating). Typical mechanical and physical properties for CG iron are seen in Table 1 . The effect of the matrix structure (ferritic and pearlitic) on the properties is given. Table 1 Typical mechanical and physical properties of compacted graphite iron at 20 °C (68 °F...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005322
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...-0.98Cr-0.15P-0.024S). Carbon equivalent: 3.7%. White area is iron carbide (cementite). Gray areas are solidified as austenite and were transformed to pearlite during solid-state cooling. Etched with 2% nital. Original magnification: 100×. Contributed to ASM Online Micrograph Center by L.E. Samuels. (b...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005324
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...) 350-22/S 350 51 220 32 22 17 12 14 10 <160 Ferrite 400-18/S 400 58 240 35 18 14 10 11 8.1 130–180 Ferrite 500–7/S 500 73 320 46 7 … … … … 170–230 Ferrite + pearlite 550-5/S 550 80 350 51 5 … … … … 180–250 Ferrite + pearlite 600-3/S 600 87...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005327
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... also contain nickel, molybdenum, copper, or combinations of these alloying elements to prevent the formation of pearlite in the microstructure. While low-alloyed white iron castings, which have an alloy content below 4%, develop hardnesses in the range of 350 to 550 HB, the high-alloyed irons range in...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... microstructures usually consist of ferrite or pearlite or combinations of both, depending on cast section size and/or alloy composition. The most important heat treatments and their purposes are: Stress relieving, a low-temperature treatment, to reduce or relieve internal stresses remaining after...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003174
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., in many ways, a low-cost, lower melting point steel. Fig. 10 Microstructures of ductile iron. (a) As-cast ferritic. (b) As-cast pearlitic, hardness 255 HB. (c) Ferritic, annealed 3 h at 700 °C (1290 °F). (d) Pearlitic ductile iron, oil-quenched and tempered to 255 HB. All etched in 2% nital...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003108
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...; low-temperature service 65-45-12 (d) F33100 … … … … … Mostly ferritic; as-cast or annealed General service 80-55-06 (d) F33800 … … … … … Ferritic/pearlitic; as-cast General service 100-70-03 (d) F34800 … … … … … Mostly pearlitic; may be normalized Best combination...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...-resistant white irons Ferritic grade 1–2.5 0.3–1.5 … … 0.5–2.5 … 30–35 … … F Austenitic grade 1–2.0 0.3–1.5 … … 0.5–2.5 10–15 15–30 … … A (a) Where a single value is given rather than a range, that value is a maximum limit. (b) Total carbon. (c) CP, coarse pearlite...