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By Jerome Kruger
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003585
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
...Abstract Abstract This article reviews the types of passivity and presents tactics that employ passivity to control corrosion. Thermodynamics provides a guide to the conditions under which passivation becomes possible. A valuable guide to thermodynamics is the potential-pH diagram...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...Abstract Abstract This article focuses on the various types of corrosion-related failure mechanisms and their effects on passive electrical components. The types include halide-induced corrosion, organic-acid-induced corrosion, electrochemical metal migration, silver tarnish, fretting...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003220
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...Abstract Abstract Although stainless steel is naturally passivated by exposure to air and other oxidizers, additional surface treatments are needed to prevent corrosion. Passivation, pickling, electropolishing, and mechanical cleaning are important surface treatments for the successful...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...Abstract Abstract This article discusses the corrosion characteristics of superaustenitic stainless and duplex stainless steels, which are used in pharmaceutical industry. It describes passivation treatments and the electropolishing of stainless steels. The article informs that electropolishing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
.... A corrosion process can be controlled by the electronic conductivity of passive films when the cathodic reaction occurs on the surface of the film and by activation control of corrosion. Passivation becomes thermodynamically possible when the corrosion potential exceeds the potential corresponding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003612
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
...Abstract Abstract This article focuses on the different parameters that influence the pitting corrosion of passive metals. The parameters are environment, metal composition, potential, temperature, surface condition, alloy composition, stochastic nature of the processes, and inhibitors...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005977
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... diffraction patterns. Some phase-decomposition regions are indicated on the B grain surface (white arrows) and in the grain boundaries. Source: Ref 6 Fig. 1 Characterization of the passive layer of an electrochemically polished surface layer. ESCA, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006546
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
...Abstract Abstract Aluminum and its alloys are highly corrosion resistant, protected by a self-healing oxide film that effectively passivates the underlying surface. This article examines the various processes by which the protective layer can be breached and the types of corrosion that can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005673
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... properties of stainless steels. Medical device considerations for stainless steels, such as fatigue strength, corrosion resistance, and passivation techniques, are reviewed. The article explains the process features of implant-grade stainless steels, including type 316L, type 316LVM, nitrogen-strengthened...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006371
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... elastomeric materials such as O-rings, which merely react to a sealed fluid pressure, and passive materials that require clamping forces to achieve sealing, such as gaskets. The types of dynamic seals include rotary seals and reciprocating seals. The article describes the factors affecting seal wear...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006404
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... and diarthosis joints. The article details the classification of total knee replacement, depending on the type of mechanical stability, including nonconstrained knee replacement, semiconstrained knee replacement, and constrained knee replacement. It also discusses the classifications of passive tribological...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
...Abstract Abstract This article contains a galvanic series chart that shows the electrochemical voltage ranges of metals and alloys in flowing seawater. Dark boxes in the chart indicate the active behavior of active-passive alloys. galvanic series chart electrochemical voltage Fig...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
...Abstract Abstract This article focuses on the various forms of corrosion that occur in the passive range of aluminum and its alloys. It discusses pitting corrosion, galvanic corrosion, deposition corrosion, intergranular corrosion, stress-corrosion cracking, exfoliation corrosion, corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... pickling and bright dipping, abrasive blast cleaning, chemical and electrochemical cleaning, mass finishing, polishing and buffing, electroless plating, immersion plating, electroplating, passivation, coloring, and organic coatings. abrasive blast cleaning bright dipping buffing chemical cleaning...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001305
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...Abstract Abstract Passivation; pickling, that is, acid descaling; electropolishing; and mechanical cleaning are important surface treatments for the successful performance of stainless steel used for piping, pressure vessels, tanks, and machined parts in a wide variety of applications...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003677
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
...Abstract Abstract This article provides a background of the complex relationship between titanium and its alloys with aqueous environments, which is dictated by the presence of a passivating oxide film. It describes the corrosion vulnerability of titanium and titanium oxides...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003661
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
...Abstract Abstract Pitting is a form of localized corrosion that is often a concern in applications involving passivating metals and alloys in aggressive environments. This article describes the test methods for pitting corrosion. These methods include ASTM G 48, ASTM F 746, ASTM G 61, ASTM G...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003637
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
...: metallurgical, microbiological, chemical, and electrochemical. It provides information on the microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) of irons and steels, passive alloys (austenitic stainless steels), aluminum alloys, copper alloys, and composites. The article reviews the formation of microbial biofilms...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003662
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
...Abstract Abstract Crevice corrosion is a form of localized corrosion that affects many alloys that normally exhibit passive behavior. This article discusses the frequently used crevice corrosion testing and evaluation procedures. These procedures include specific crevice corrosion tests...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002439
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
.... It describes hazard analysis in terms of failure modes and effects analysis, failure modes and criticality analysis, fault tree analysis, fault hazard analysis, and operating hazards analysis. The article examines fail-safe designs, such as fail-passive designs, fail-active designs, and fail-operational...