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passive voltage contrast

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... of a passive surface film that can inhibit a chemical reaction can range from 10 to 50 nm. Chemical bonding or chemical interactions are typically within a depth of approximately 1 nm. Thus, in terms of material behavior and characterization, surface should be defined as a region with some depth...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003677
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... oxide thickening promotes additional passivity. In contrast, passivated titanium exhibits poor resistance to corrosion in reducing-acid environments, such as hydrochloric or sulfuric acids, where the passivating TiO 2 can be reduced to a soluble form of oxidized titanium. Therefore, alloying additions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... Abstract The plasma carburizing process is basically a low-pressure carburizing process making use of a high-voltage electrical field applied between the load to be treated and the furnace wall producing activated and ionized gas species responsible for carbon transfer to the workpieces...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003749
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... higher voltages on the basis of the greatest color contrast between the phases. Once selected, the voltage is used for other specimens of the same alloy. Potentiostatic Etching <xref rid="a0003749-ref19" ref-type="bibr">(Adapted from Ref 19)</xref> Potentiostatic etching is the selective corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.9781627081825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... Abstract This article focuses on the various types of corrosion-related failure mechanisms and their effects on passive electrical components. The types include halide-induced corrosion, organic-acid-induced corrosion, electrochemical metal migration, silver tarnish, fretting, and metal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003718
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... of certain met- als and alloys that occurs at ambient or mod- pure iron, stable below 910 C (1670 F). activation. The changing of a passive surface of erately elevated temperatures after hot work- alternate-immersion test. A corrosion test in a metal to a chemically active state. Contrast ing or a heat...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... to the inward migration of oxide ions to the metal-oxide interface, producing a compact layer that contains no foreign anions other than oxide ions. Other examples of metals that form network-forming oxides are titanium, zirconium, silicon, and tantalum. To contrast, the growth of passive layers on metals...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003644
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
..., such as the pitting of titanium alloys. The maximum cell voltage should be approximately 60 V. Outputs should be provided for monitoring of potential and current. For the latter purpose, the current should be provided as a voltage versus ground, which is important for recording of the current on a strip chart or x-y...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... and magnetic applications, such a response usually has two aspects: another stimuluslike parameter and one or, more likely, several attributes of a physical body responding to the stimulus. For example, a voltage V applied to both ends of a wire causes an electrical current I to flow through the wire...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005673
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... of stainless steels. Medical device considerations for stainless steels, such as fatigue strength, corrosion resistance, and passivation techniques, are reviewed. The article explains the process features of implant-grade stainless steels, including type 316L, type 316LVM, nitrogen-strengthened, ASTM F1314...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... or crevices in the metal. The bulk of the material remains passive but suffers localized and rapid surface degradation. In particular, chloride ions are notorious for inducing pitting corrosion. Once a pit is formed, the environmental attack is locally autocatalytic. Generally, pitting corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... are used, this article focuses only on the corrosion behavior of these three groups. These alloys all form a thin, compact, semiconducting oxide (or hydroxide) film (usually called a passive film) that protects the substrate alloy from corrosive environments as well as interacts with the host during...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005977
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... of an effective protective passive layer in stainless steels. It discusses hardness, fatigue and fretting properties, tribological properties, wear resistance, and corrosion-wear process of the S-phase layer. The article describes two thermochemical nitriding techniques of stainless steels: plasma-assisted...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... of the workpiece. High-voltage electrical energy is used to form a low-pressure ionized gas (or plasma) containing nitrogen ions that are accelerated to impinge on the workpiece. This ion bombardment heats the workpiece, cleans the surface, and supplies atomic nitrogen to the surface. As a variant of steel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003586
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... interest to define these thresholds than it is to determine the rates in the regions where corrosion rates are high. Examples of the latter are pitting or crevice corrosion where passive films are broken down and local corrosion rates can be extremely high. This article addresses electrochemical methods...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003748
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... of the surface of a particular metal in a specific solution is due to the presence of either a passivating oxide film or a viscous diffusion layer. Chemical polishing is generally simple to employ and fast, requiring little physical exertion. Elaborate equipment is not required. Metal removal rates are high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003599
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... (Eq 3) M ( s ) , impure 0 → M ( s ) , pure  0 In contrast to a galvanic cell, the cell for the electrochemical refining is an electrolytic cell that requires an input of electrical energy to produce chemical transformations. Thus, the cell has a negative equilibrium cell...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... direction indicates a stifling of corrosion through passivation or the formation of insoluble protective corrosion products. For example, newly laid insulated steel pipelines may have an average potential in excess of −0.8 V with respect to a copper/copper sulfate reference electrode, whereas old corroded...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006677
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... comprised of two octopoles. Appropriate voltages applied to these 16 combined plates or poles push the beam one direction and then the opposite direction to cause the beam to land at the desired location on the sample while passing through a virtual pivot point in the final lens ( Fig. 6 ). This pivot point...