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passive films

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By Jerome Kruger
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003585
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... diagram. The article presents a potential-pH diagram for the iron-water system and an illustration of an idealized anodic polarization curve for a metal surface, which serves as a basis for describing the kinetics of passivation. It discusses five properties of passive films: thickness, composition...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... corrosion process can be controlled by the electronic conductivity of passive films when the cathodic reaction occurs on the surface of the film and by activation control of corrosion. Passivation becomes thermodynamically possible when the corrosion potential exceeds the potential corresponding to the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003612
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... article provides a detailed discussion on the various stages of pitting. These include passive film breakdown, metastable pitting, pit growth, and pit stifling or death. pitting corrosion passive metals metal composition surface condition alloy composition corrosion inhibitors pitting passive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001301
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Coatings and thin films can be studied with surface analysis methods because their inherently small depth allows characterization of the surface composition, interface composition, and in-depth distribution of composition. This article describes principles and examples of common...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001286
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract This article describes eight stages of the atomistic film growth: vaporization of the material, transport of the material to the substrate, condensation and nucleation of the atoms, nuclei growth, interface formation, film growth, changes in structure during the deposition, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... Abstract This article focuses on the various types of corrosion-related failure mechanisms and their effects on passive electrical components. The types include halide-induced corrosion, organic-acid-induced corrosion, electrochemical metal migration, silver tarnish, fretting, and metal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003677
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Abstract This article provides a background of the complex relationship between titanium and its alloys with aqueous environments, which is dictated by the presence of a passivating oxide film. It describes the corrosion vulnerability of titanium and titanium oxides by the classification of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003637
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... corrosion (MIC) of irons and steels, passive alloys (austenitic stainless steels), aluminum alloys, copper alloys, and composites. Electrochemical corrosion and biological film formation have often been treated as separate events. However, the presence of microorganisms on a metal surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006546
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
... Abstract Aluminum and its alloys are highly corrosion resistant, protected by a self-healing oxide film that effectively passivates the underlying surface. This article examines the various processes by which the protective layer can be breached and the types of corrosion that can occur. It...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006360
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... attributed to passivation of surface carbon by hydrogen, which can lower friction by electrostatic repulsion between the two hydrogen-terminated surfaces in a self-mated contact within an inert environment. Unfortunately, industrial machine tribology applications that can benefit from DLC films demonstrating...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003220
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... is the natural, primary passivation treatment for stainless steel. This exposure produces a thin, durable chromium oxide film that forms rapidly on the alloy surface and gives stainless steel its characteristic “stainless” quality. Exposure of the surface to water or other oxidizing environments also...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... stainless steels. Stainless steels offer useful corrosion resistance because they exhibit passive corrosion behavior as a result of the formation of protective oxide films on the exposed surfaces. Under normal circumstances, stainless steels will readily form this protective layer immediately on...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003749
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Abstract Metallographic contrasting methods include various electrochemical, optical, and physical etching techniques, which in turn are enhanced by the formation of a thin transparent film on the specimen surface. This article primarily discusses etching in conjunction with light microscopy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001276
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... stain on the metal surface, and they can retard the shellacking, or oxidizing, of the rust-preventive film. Certain additives will adhere to and passivate metal surfaces, providing short-term protection. Other additives act as oxygen scavengers, preventing oxygen from reacting with a metal surface and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003752
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... function of film thickness. Passivation treatments, used on aluminum and stainless steels, produce thin, transparent films that do not reveal the microstructure. Oxides produced by high-temperature exposure are usually quite thick and also do not reveal the microstructure. Between these extremes, films of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... against alkali ions and moisture and are thus the material of choice as a final passivation and coating layer for ICs. The PECVD technique makes it possible to deposit silicon nitride films at temperatures in the range of 250 to 400 °C (480 to 750 °F), which is low enough to be deposited over device...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005673
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... the passivating film, which set up what is called a galvanic cell, producing corrosion. %Cr greater than 23–24 %Mo greater than 2 Stress-corrosion cracking Localized points of corrosion allow stresses initially unable to crack the steel to concentrate sufficiently to now do so, Details of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003661
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... potential for pitting; the more electropositive (more noble) this critical potential is, the more resistant the alloy is to passive film breakdown and to localized corrosion. The method was intentionally designed to cause breakdown of at least one alloy (type 316L stainless steel) that is currently...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... alloys are used, this article focuses only on the corrosion behavior of these three groups. These alloys all form a thin, compact, semiconducting oxide (or hydroxide) film (usually called a passive film) that protects the substrate alloy from corrosive environments as well as interacts with the host...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001305
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... protective film then reforms in air over the freshly cleaned surface. This oxide film is uniform and leaves the stainless surface in its normal passive condition. Although pickling is not strictly a passivating treatment, it provides many of the same benefits. Pickling is most useful for localized cleaning...