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passive film breakdown

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003612
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
.... In addition, the article provides a detailed discussion on the various stages of pitting. These include passive film breakdown, metastable pitting, pit growth, and pit stifling or death. pitting corrosion passive metals metal composition surface condition alloy composition corrosion inhibitors...
Book Chapter

By Jerome Kruger
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003585
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
..., composition, structure, electronic properties, and mechanical properties. The article outlines three possible processes that can form passive films: direct film formation, dissolution precipitation, and anodic oxidation of metal ions in solution. It describes the breakdown of the passive film using various...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003677
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... by the overlay of the OCPs onto the revised Pourbaix diagram of titanium at 37 °C (99 °F), as shown in Fig. 7 . Similar decreases and step-function drops in OCPs of titanium were recorded in sulfuric and hydrochloric acids ( Ref 38 , 49 , 50 ). It was confirmed that the OCP breakdown of the passive film...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...). The more noble this transpassive potential, the less susceptible the material is to loss of passivity or localized film breakdown (e.g., pitting attack). The third potential is called the protection potential ( E prot ) or repassivation potential at which the reversed scanning part of the cyclic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... the potential reaches a critical value, called the breakdown potential (or the critical potential for pitting) ( E b ). The passive film locally breaks down, active dissolution occurs, and the electrochemical and chemical reactions combined with insufficient mass transport to and from the occluded site cause...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... that facilitates the breakdown of a passive film An oxidizer that helps form a passivating film A highly viscous constituent that promotes the formation of a diffusion layer The oxidizer and the etchant assist in maintaining the part in a pseudopassive state, while the diffusion layer control...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003661
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... for pitting; the more electropositive (more noble) this critical potential is, the more resistant the alloy is to passive film breakdown and to localized corrosion. The method was intentionally designed to cause breakdown of at least one alloy (type 316L stainless steel) that is currently considered...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
.... A corrosion process can be controlled by the electronic conductivity of passive films when the cathodic reaction occurs on the surface of the film and by activation control of corrosion. Passivation becomes thermodynamically possible when the corrosion potential exceeds the potential corresponding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003637
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
...: metallurgical, microbiological, chemical, and electrochemical. It provides information on the microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) of irons and steels, passive alloys (austenitic stainless steels), aluminum alloys, copper alloys, and composites. The article reviews the formation of microbial biofilms...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003823
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
..., alkaline solutions, and organic media. Zirconium is particularly suitable for handling reducing acids, which is difficult for most passive alloys. Protective oxide films are difficult to form on the surface of zirconium in a few media, such as hydrofluoric acid, concentrated sulfuric acid, and certain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
...-nanocrystalline Al-Ni-Y alloy in an acidic environment that destabilized protective passive oxide films ( Ref 47 ). Such behavior was not observed in the as-quenched version of the same amorphous alloy, which resisted depassivation and porosity development in the same solution. However, global electrochemical...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... In high-temperature oxidation, stainless steels use a generally similar model for corrosion protection. However, at low temperatures, stainless steels do not form a layer of true oxide. Instead, a passive film is formed. One mechanism that has been suggested is the formation of a film of hydrated oxide...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003805
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
.... Thus, by International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9223 ( Ref 3 ), the definition of time of wetness (TOW) is given as time in hours per year (h/yr) when RH>80% and the temperature, T , > 0 °C (32 °F). Corrosion Film Formation and Breakdown The corrosion of iron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... for some recently developed thin films, with the values of d well into the submicron range ( Ref 13 ). Fig. 6 Leakage current densities versus capacitance densities of new dielectric thin There is another limitation to the voltage between the capacitor plates—the dielectric breakdown...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006423
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... expansion or contraction. Surface expansion can lead to changes such as generation of virgin surfaces and changes in surface morphology. The resulting effect of surface expansion is thinning of the lubricant film and lubricant film breakdown, and may accelerate chemical reactivity of the lubricant within...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004178
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... ordered and corrosion-resistant passive film. However, as temperature and/or concentration increases, the transpassive (breakdown) potential decreases, and there is less tolerance for oxidizing agents, such Fe 3+ , Cu 2+ , and nitrate ( NO 3 − ) ions. Thus, zirconium has excellent resistance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004105
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... coast, U.S. 39° 20′ N 73° 40′ W 6 Northeast Atlantic 36° 44′ N 64° 28′ W Effect of Salinity on Corrosion The main effects of salinity on corrosion result from its influence on the conductivity of the water and from the influence of chloride ions on the breakdown of passive films...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... to corrosive environments from passive oxide films, which heal rapidly in air if scratched. Decorative chromium coatings are generally less than 1.2 μm (0.05 mil) thick, while coatings thicker than this are used to resist both corrosion and wear. In this Section, the reader learns of the preplating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003633
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
...) In general, SCC is observed in alloy-environment combinations that result in the formation of a film on the metal surface. These films may be passivating layers, tarnish films, or dealloyed layers. In many cases, these films reduce the rate of general or uniform corrosion, making the alloy desirable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005653
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
...., where the oxide films are not stressed or abraded) but have a limited value in understanding the true nature of the surface behavior. Typical results from these tests cannot always tell the range of potential where the oxide is stable, whether oxide reduction is possible, what type of breakdown occurs...