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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005673
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... stainless steels. Medical device considerations for stainless steels, such as fatigue strength, corrosion resistance, and passivation techniques, are reviewed. The article describes the process features of the implant-grade stainless steels, including type 316L, type 316LVM, nitrogen-strengthened, ASTM...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003220
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Although stainless steel is naturally passivated by exposure to air and other oxidizers, additional surface treatments are needed to prevent corrosion. Passivation, pickling, electropolishing, and mechanical cleaning are important surface treatments for the successful performance of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... buffing, electroless plating, immersion plating, electroplating, passivation, coloring, and organic coatings. Decorative chromium deposits are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001305
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Passivation; pickling, that is, acid descaling; electropolishing; and mechanical cleaning are important surface treatments for the successful performance of stainless steel used for piping, pressure vessels, tanks, and machined parts in a wide variety of applications. This article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Abstract This article contains a galvanic series chart that shows the electrochemical voltage ranges of metals and alloys in flowing seawater. Dark boxes in the chart indicate the active behavior of active-passive alloys. galvanic series chart electrochemical voltage Fig. 1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Abstract This article focuses on the various forms of corrosion occurred in the passive range of aluminum and its alloys, namely, pitting corrosion, galvanic corrosion, deposition corrosion, intergranular corrosion, stress-corrosion cracking, exfoliation corrosion, corrosion fatigue, erosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... grand challenge that could possibly be accomplished via the formation of a homogeneous single-phase system with alloying elements that either promote passivity in neutral and acidic environments or increase resistance to local halide-induced corrosion. Amorphous alloys offer this possibility. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... metallic implant materials, with the exception of noble metals, is that they are strongly passivating metals and alloys with a very low uniform dissolution rate in the real or simulated human body environments. This has important consequences for the selection and interpretation of the corrosion test...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...-temperature oxidation, stainless steels use a generally similar model for corrosion protection. However, at low temperatures, stainless steels do not form a layer of true oxide. Instead, a passive film is formed. One mechanism that has been suggested is the formation of a film of hydrated oxide, but there is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...: Damage to protective metal oxide films. Many corrosion-resistant metallic materials have a thin oxide film (i.e., a passive film formed on the surface) that blocks or minimizes the interaction between the surface and surrounding medium, thus suppressing corrosion reactions. When the materials are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... applications. The corrosion resistance of stainless steels (SS) and nickel-base superalloys can be attributed to the natural, protective oxide layer (passive film) that forms on the surfaces of these metals. This protective oxide film is subject to localized breakdown, allowing pitting, crevice corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0006540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... E p pitting potential; passivation potential E pass passivation potential E pit critical potential for pitting E pp primary passivation potential E prot protection or repassivation potential E R , E RP repassivation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005665
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
..., making them more susceptible to producing greater amounts of metallic debris. The high corrosion resistance of metals and alloys used as implants is due to the presence of a passive oxide layer covering their surface. However, this self-protective feature is constantly under attack, because it is in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
..., its coherence and adhesion to the metal, and the diffusivities of oxygen and metal in the oxide. In high-temperature oxidation, stainless steels use a generally similar model for corrosion protection. However, at low temperatures, stainless steels do not form a layer of true oxide. Instead, a passive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005652
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... compatibility by forming continuous passive films that prevent or significantly limit the corrosion rates encountered in the physiological environment. One mechanism of biocompatibility failure is the occurrence of conditions that damage the passive film or prevent its formation. Changes in environmental...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... Nitinol rids the surface layer of the nickel and exposes only TiO 2 to the surrounding environment, a process known as passivation. On an atomistic basis, passivated Nitinol looks and reacts just like titanium. Compositional depth profiling of the surface of a passivated Nitinol sample obtained using...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003839
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... revert back to its oxide, but it generally has good resistance to aqueous corrosion in near-neutral solutions, due to the formation of a passive film ( Ref 57 ). In acidic and basic solutions, the passive film is not thermodynamically stable, and thus, corrosion rates are high ( Ref 57 ). Aluminum pits...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003823
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... particularly suitable for handling reducing acids, which is difficult for most passive alloys. Protective oxide films are difficult to form on the surface of zirconium in a few media, such as hydrofluoric acid, concentrated sulfuric acid, and certain dry organic halides. Consequently, zirconium is not...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... this passive oxide film can be expected in most aqueous solutions. Because the passivity of titanium stems from the formation of a stable oxide film, an understanding of the corrosion behavior of titanium is obtained by recognizing the conditions under which this oxide is thermodynamically stable. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... usually reflowed by momentarily melting the tin coating in a resistance or induction heating unit. In doing so, a thin layer of tin-iron intermetallic compound is formed at the tin/steel interface. Next, an extremely thin passivation film based on chromium oxide is created by immersion or spraying of...