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particle-induced X-ray emission

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001734
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
...Abstract Abstract Particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) is one of several quantitative analyses based on characteristic x-rays. This article provides a detailed account on the principles of PIXE, discussing the data-reduction codes used to identify, integrate, and reduce x-ray peaks...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006666
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...Abstract Abstract This article provides a detailed account of particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE), covering the basic principles of PIXE analysis and calibration and quality-assurance protocols employed. A comparative study on PIXE and x-ray fluorescence is then presented. The article also...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0005693
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... spectroscopy PGAA prompt gamma-ray activation analysis PIXE particle-induced x-ray emission RBS Rutherford backscattering spectrometry RDF radial distribution function (analysis) RHEED reflection high-energy electron diffraction SAD selected-area diffraction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005731
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... and characterize the raw materials. This article discusses various characterization methods for powders. Topics discussed include: methods for determining particle size and/or size distribution; powder and coating stoichiometry; particle chemistry; and phase analysis by x-ray diffraction. This article discusses...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001733
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... sources may be used to create the excited electronic states in the atoms of elements that produce x-ray emission. Among these are electron beams, charged particle beams, and x-radiation. Electron beams are directed on the sample in such techniques as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron...
Book Chapter

By S. Lampman
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006645
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
.... However, the x-ray flux from isotopic sources that can be safety handled in a laboratory is too weak for practical use. Because gamma-ray sources usually emit only a few narrow x-ray lines, several are required to excite many elements efficiently. Another method is particle-induced x-ray emission applied...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
..., such as X-ray powder diffraction, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy, and atomic fluorescence spectrometry, are also discussed. atomic absorption spectroscopy atomic fluorescence spectrometry Auger electron spectroscopy bulk analysis electron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
.... Scanning electron microscopy offers possibilities for image formation that are usually easy to interpret and will reveal clear pictures of as-polished and etched cross sections as well as rough surfaces and particles. Energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis using equipment routinely attached to the scanning...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... with copper, an incident electron energy of ≈12 keV or higher is needed to induce copper K α emission. Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis By their very nature, handheld XRF units are designed to be used on samples in the field that require little or no sample preparation. However, for best results...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., the collision causes the ejection of the bound electrons. One way the atom decays to the ground state is by replacing the inner shell electron with a higher shell electron. Energy balance is restored by the emission of an x-ray whose energy is equal to the difference in energy levels of the electrons involved...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... voltage, beam current, sample composition, and the specific signal being detected. Signals are most commonly secondary electrons, backscattered electrons, and x-rays. Other possible signals that can be generated and detected in the SEM include visible light (cathodoluminescence), beam induced current...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006642
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
.... Electronic instrumentation is used to count the number of tagged atoms by observing and recording the individual radiation emissions. Neutron activation analysis is a powerful assay technique primarily because neutrons, unlike charged particles ( e − ) or photons (x-rays), can penetrate deeply into most...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... to a given characteristic x-ray, for example, Kα, depends on the electron shells involved in the transition. Fig. 2 Inner-shell ionization and subsequent de-excitation by Auger electron emission or characteristic x-ray photon emission. Source: Ref 8 Figure 3 shows a schematic of the energy...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.9781627081788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning acoustic microscopy. The article also reviews the X-ray diffraction technique used for determining the compositional changes, strain changes, and residual stress evaluation during the fatigue process. acoustic emission technique atomic force microscopy...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... the stationary beam strikes the surface. This spot is then positioned over a particle or region of interest by manual control of the scan coil voltages, and the x-ray spectrum is collected from that point. Addition of an x-ray detector to a scanning electron microscope converts the microscope into an electron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001300
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... be realized that these images should not be interpreted like reflected light micrographs, because shadows are not generally caused by topography effects. The primary electron beam can excite core electrons in the sample, which relax by the emission of an x-ray, as is characteristic of the excited atom...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.9781627082136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... technique uses radiation, either as x-rays or gamma rays, to penetrate the weld to create a latent image on radiographic film. The test piece absorbs radiation, but when flaws are present, less is absorbed than the amount absorbed by the parent material, which produces a localized darkening of the film...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... a background to the characteristic peaks and sets a limit on sensitivity. The ionization leading to the emission of a characteristic x-ray photon requires that the exciting electron possess or exceed a minimum energy that is also characteristic of the element and line involved. The energy required sets...