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particle impact velocity

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006666
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article provides a detailed account of particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE), covering the basic principles of PIXE analysis and calibration and quality-assurance protocols employed. A comparative study on PIXE and x-ray fluorescence is then presented. The article also discusses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006468
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Magnetic-particle inspection is a method of locating surface and subsurface discontinuities in ferromagnetic materials. This article discusses the applications and advantages and limitations of magnetic-particle inspection. It describes magnetic fields in terms of magnetized ring...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... shape of wear debris particles arising from normal and compound wear vary depending on the material pair and the nominal levels of stress and sliding velocity in the contact. Analysis of wear debris from a range of experiments carried out mainly with titanium alloy specimens impacting 17-4 PH stainless...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001282
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... instances with unique combinations of coatings and substrates. There is evidence of chemical bonding in some coating/substrate systems, not unreasonable when the high-velocity impact of particles might be expected to rupture any films on either the powder particles or the substrate. In addition, van der...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003030
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... application or to investigate a particular wear process. It describes the wear tests conducted with/without abrasives and explains the concept of PV limit (where P is contact pressure and V is velocity). The article concludes with references and tables of friction and wear test data for polymeric materials...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... shown in Fig. 8 . This jet is used to heat and accelerate a powder consumable to high velocity, which then impacts on a substrate to build up the coating. There are several types of HVOF equipment available commercially. The fuel for combustion is a gas such as ethylene, methane, acetylene, and...
Book Chapter

By Ted Kostilnik
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... process has other useful applications, such as relieving tensile stresses that contribute to stress-corrosion cracking, forming and straightening of metal parts, and testing the adhesion of silver plate on steel. When individual particles of shot in a high-velocity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... galvanic corrosion, uniform corrosion, pitting, crevice corrosion, intergranular corrosion, selective leaching, and velocity-affected corrosion. In particular, mechanisms of corrosive attack for specific forms of corrosion, as well as evaluation and factors contributing to these forms, are described. These...
Book Chapter

By Erhard Klar
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... amorphous particles can be found in the fine fractions because of the higher cooling rates of fine powders. Rapid quenching reduces segregation, refines the microstructure, and extends the solubility of a metal, with benefits in hot formability, fatigue and impact strength, and electrical and magnetic...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., separators, and flotation devices that are used for particle size reduction, separation of particles according to their settling rates in fluids and dewatering of concentrate particles. It explains the basic principles, flow diagrams, ore concentrate preparation methods, and equipment of major types of...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003054
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... resistance, and other properties. This article discusses the fundamentals of sintering and its effects on pore structures and particle density. It addresses some of the more common sintering methods, including solid-state, liquid-phase, and gas pressure sintering, and presents alternative processes such as...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
..., zirconium, chromium, vanadium, scandium, nickel, tin, and bismuth. The article discusses the secondary phases in aluminum alloys, namely, nonmetallic inclusions, porosity, primary particles, constituent particles, dispersoids, precipitates, grain and dislocation structure, and crystallographic texture. It...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., etc.) also suffer from erosion ( Ref 44 – 46 ). Erosion occurs as the result of several different mechanisms, depending on the composition, size, and shape of the eroding particles; their velocity and angle of impact; and composition and properties of the surface material being eroded. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... impact device rebounds away from the test surface according to the hardness and elasticity of the material. An electronic induction coil measures the velocity of the impact device before and after it contacts the sample. The portable nature of these testers allows for fast, reliable hardness testing in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... important role in erosion wear. Two additional key parameters are the impact angle and the particle velocity. Equations 1 and 3 can be modified to express the wear volume, V , due to solid-particle erosion ( Ref 3 , 5 ): (Eq 7) V = Φ SPE · m ⋅ v 2 2 · H where m is the...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005355
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... propelled at high velocity to impact the casting surface and thereby forcefully remove surface contaminants. The contaminants are usually adhering mold sand, burned-in sand, heat treat scale, and so on. For aluminum castings, the process is often used to provide a uniform cosmetic finish in addition to...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003152
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Cemented carbides belong to a class of hard, wear-resistant, refractory materials in which the hard carbide particles are bound together, or cemented, by a ductile metal binder. Cermet refers to a composite of a ceramic material with a metallic binder. This article discusses the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003104
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... classification was used in Friction, Lubrication, and Wear Technology , Volume 18 of ASM Handbook: Wear by particles or fluids Abrasive wear Polishing wear Solid particle erosion Cavitation erosion Liquid impingement erosion Slurry erosion Wear by rolling, sliding, or impact...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...-reduction filtration mechanism dependent on many variables: metal fluidity, velocity, foam filter porosity, foam filter thickness, particle size of the contaminant to be trapped, and so on. That is, some percentage of extremely small particulate will be able to escape even the best foam filter. It...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003988
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... forged materials: the part dimensions and surface finish measurement, magnetic particle inspection, metallographic analysis, and nondestructive testing. It concludes with a discussion on the applications of powder forged parts with examples. ferrous alloy powder forging inclusions magnetic...