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partial immersion

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... crystallization, and polymorphous crystallization. The article demonstrates a free-energy versus composition diagram that summarizes many of the devitrification routes. It provides a historical review of the corrosion behavior of fully amorphous and partially devitrified metallic glasses. The article describes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... also provides information on digital radiography, image processing and analysis, dual-energy imaging, and partial angle imaging, of a CT system. computed tomography digital radiography dual-energy imaging film radiography partial angle imaging real-time radiography X-ray computed tomography...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
...-based atmospheres, industrial gas nitrogen-base atmospheres, argon atmospheres, and hydrogen atmospheres. Atmospheres for backfilling, partial pressure operation, and quenching in vacuum are also discussed. Furnace atmospheres constitute four major groups of safety hazards in heat treating: fire...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003198
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... enclosures that are evacuated to partial pressures compatible with the particular metals and processes. Vacuum is substituted for the more commonly used protective gas atmospheres during either part or all of the heat treatment. Furnace equipment used in vacuum heat treating differs widely in size, shape...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... coating, while galvanic protection is secondary and occurs only at places where the zinc coating is not present. The galvanic action of zinc-coated steel with the coating partially removed under a thin moisture layer (e.g., atmospheric environments) is schematically represented in Fig. 7 . There are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005929
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... previously, and thus, there is ess likelihood that it will distort during heating. For partial or selective heating, the salt bath offers special advantages. Because of the rapid rate of heating, only the portion of metal that is immersed is heated, and a rather sharp demarcation exists between the heated...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001274
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... phosphate ClO 3 accelerated (a) 50–55 122–130 70 7 Rinse Water 35 95 15 8 Acidulated rinse Partially reduced chromic acid (150 to 200 ppm Cr 6+ ) 35 95 35 9 Rinse Deionized water (100 μmho max) 35 95 70 10 Rinse Deionized water (10 μmho) 35 95 15 11 Dryer Hot air...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003848
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... in the United States is the Thwing cup permeation test. It consists of a small cup (60 to 100 cm 3 , or 3.7 to 6.1 in. 3 ) partially filled with liquid. An elastomer specimen is stretched over the open end of the cup and clamped securely. The whole assembly is weighed and the cup is inverted. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006260
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... rate. It describes the quench sensitivity and severity of alloys, quench mechanisms and the different types of quenchants used in immersion, spray, and fog quenching. The article provides a detailed description of the quench-factor analysis that mainly includes residual stress and distortion, which can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Table 1 Pickling conditions for copper-base materials Constituent or condition Amount or value Sulfuric acid bath Sulfuric acid (a) 15–20 vol% 35% hydrogen peroxide 3–5 vol% Water bal Temperature of solution Room temperature to 60 °C (140 °F) Immersion time 15...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... behavior on soft solders, pewter, bearing alloys, tin-copper alloys, and tin-silver alloys. It reviews the influence of corrosion on immersion tin coating, tin-cadmium alloy coatings, tin-cobalt coatings, tin-copper coatings, tin-lead coatings, tin-nickel coatings, and tin-zinc coatings. The general...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... SCC. Alloys with higher aluminum content, such as AZ61, AZ80, and AZ91, can be very susceptible to SCC in atmospheric and more severe environments. For example, Fig. 13 and 14 show that AZ91 is quite susceptible to SCC in rural atmosphere, and very susceptible when partially immersed in...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., 5 xxx, 6 xxx series alloys 5 or 12 Predominance of certain gray tones when crossed polarizers are used, lack of randomness 2 xxx series alloys in T4 temper 3A or 11 Lack of randomness in grain contrast Examination for overheating (partial melting) 2 xxx series alloys 8 (1 min...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., the reduction of phosphate salt use is being addressed by partial or complete replacement of phosphate salts (e.g., with polyacrylic-acid-base polymers). These polymers provide good hard water control and are easy to waste treat. The pursuit of lowering aquatic toxicity and increasing biodegradability...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006026
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... corrosion resistance and/or aesthetic characteristics. Chemical exposure testing can consist of one-sided glass test cell exposure, chemical spot tests, or partial/full immersion. Coatings are essential in all nuclear facilities ( Fig. 31 ). Radionuclides generated within the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006070
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... temperature differential ( Table 4 ). Table 4 Properties of salt contaminants Salt Equilibrium partial pressure, mm Hg Relative humidity of air above saturated solution, % Dewpoint/surface temperature differential °C °F Zinc chloride 1.8 10 35.1 95 Calcium chloride 6.2 35 18...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005288
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... casting in the vertical mode and, for small-diameter rod, none of the disadvantages. The method consists of a graphite die partially immersed in molten metal, with the upper part surrounded by a water-cooled jacket ( Fig. 6 ) ( Ref 1 ). The assembly is located just above the metal top surface, with the...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... melting under atmospheric pressure for a given steel composition. Because the solubility of nitrogen in iron is proportional to the nitrogen partial pressure in the furnace atmosphere, there is the possibility of alloying nitrogen into the melt under higher pressure and allowing it to solidify. The ESR...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... bath, the surface of the work may have spots of flux, which must be removed by suitable washing. Flux is placed on the surface of the molten tin bath in an amount sufficient to provide a molten flux layer that covers about two-thirds of the surface area. The use of partial rather than total flux...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... auxiliary heater may be turned off and the main electrode system energized. Electrode systems also pose a potential safety hazard if a bath should partially “freeze over,” forming an impermeable solid salt crust. The volume of a molten salt increases with increasing temperature, so if the electrode heating...