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pack chromizing

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003686
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... and kinetics of, and simultaneous deposition of various types of, pack cementation processes. These include pack aluminizing, chromizing, and siliconizing. References References 1. Fontana M.G. and Greene N.D. , Corrosion Engineering , 2nd ed. , McGraw-Hill International Book Company...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... , balance Al 2 O 3 powder 3 h at 1095 °C (2000 °F) in argon Gas-phase aluminizing, outward diffusion in NiAl in nickel alloys (f) 30% Al-70% Cr alloy granules, NH 4 F 4 h at 1150 °C (2100 °F) in argon Pack or gas-phase chromizing of nickel alloys (g) 15% Cr, 4% Ni, 1% Al, 10.25% NH 4 Br or NH 4...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... reviews pack cementation processes of aluminizing, chromizing, and siliconizing. It contains tables that list typical characteristics of pack cementation processes and commercial applications of pack cementation aluminizing, which is used to improve the performance of steels in high-temperature corrosive...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003218
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... the characteristics of different pack cementation processes, including aluminizing, siliconizing, chromizing, boronizing, and multicomponent coating. aluminizing boronizing chemical vapor deposition chemical vapor deposition materials chromizing multicomponent coating siliconizing CHEMICAL VAPOR...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003218
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... discusses the characteristics of different pack cementation processes, including aluminizing, siliconizing, chromizing, boronizing, and multicomponent coating. aluminizing boronizing chemical vapor deposition chemical vapor deposition materials chromizing multicomponent coating siliconizing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002466
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... , Surface Modification Technologies IV , Sudarshan T.S. , Bhat D.G. , and Jeandin M. , TMS , 1991 , p 583 53. Harper M.A. and Rapp R.A. , Codeposition of Chromium and Silicon in Diffusion Coatings for Iron-Base Alloys Using Pack Cementation , Surface Modification...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004156
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... of the substrate to a pack mix heated to high temperatures under an inert or reducing environment. The pack mix consists of powders of active metal(s), a halide salt activator, and an inert oxide powder as the matrix. For boiler applications, chromizing, which produces a higher chromium concentration at the tube...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005773
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... reagents Stable quality of coating Better throwing power Uniform coating temperature Tight dimensional control Smaller shape distortion Most expensive equipment Good equipment design required for substrate steel hardening High-temperature powder-packing process Less...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... Process temperature Typical case depth Case hardness, HRC Typical base metals Process characteristics °C °F Carburizing Pack Diffused carbon 815–1090 1500–2000 125 μm–1.5 mm (5–60 mils) 50–63 (a) Low-carbon steels, low-carbon alloy steel Low equipment costs; difficult to control...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001283
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... graphite is the higher-temperature product (1900 to 2300 °C, or 3450 to 4170 °F) with a high degree of preferred orientation in the “C” direction. Fig. 6 Pack-cementation chromizing/siliconizing apparatus. Pack material composed of 3 wt% Cr, 11 wt% Si, 0.25 wt% NH 4 I, and balance, Al 2 O 3...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006420
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
..., and the 1060 steel received a chromizing surface treatment ( Ref 9 ). Micrographs of TD treated samples and conditions for the salt-bath immersion are shown in Fig. 8 . Micrographs of pack diffusion treated samples and conditions for pack diffusion treatments are shown in Fig. 9 . Microindentation hardness...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... steels 1050 (1920) 68 B-Al 5% B 4 C + 5% KBF 4 + 90% SiC (Ekabor II) Al-B Borochromizing Pack 78% ferrochrome + 20% Al 2 O 3 + 2% NH 4 Cl S Plain carbon steels Borided at 900 (1650) 2 B-Cr 5% B 4 C + 5% KBF 4 + 90% SiC (Ekabor II) Chromized at 1000 (1830) Cr-B...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003833
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... a shorter heat treatment time and has a higher tolerable chloride limit than pack chromized steel ( Ref 25 ). Moist sulfur dioxide corrosion testing compared 316L steel to various coatings, including chromium and nickel-chromium duplex coatings with and without heat treatments ( Ref 26 ). Several...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003762
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...Typical characteristics of diffusion treatments Table 1 Typical characteristics of diffusion treatments Process Process temperature, °C (°F) Typical case depth Case hardness, HRC Typical base metals Process characteristics Carburizing Pack 815–1090 (1500–2000...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005737
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... of coating systems used on IGT components. These types of coatings were needed to enhance the life and performance of these engine components. Key coating technologies used over the years include slurry, pack cementation, galvanic, electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD), and thermal spray (air...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
...(Co)CrAlY Thermal Barrier Coatings Chromizing Nickel and Titanium Aluminides. The oxidation resistance of NiAl has been actively studied since 1970. The fundamental mechanisms were described by Pettit, and regimes of protective behavior were mapped over the equilibrium diagram ( Ref 37...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005932
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... the vapor phase is eliminated or reduced, quenching is more uniform, even when the workload is tightly packed. The as-quenched hardness and hardness uniformity is increased. These advantages can be explained by the mechanism of precipitation of fine salt crystals on the surface of the part...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004190
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... ft) in diameter and up to 18.3 m (60 ft) high. Soft or hard wood chips are fed into the top of the vessel, along with hot cooking liquor, which helps pack the chips in the vessel. The liquor consists of a mixture of white and black liquors in various volume ratios depending on the pulp product being...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... accelerate attack mainly through the loss of the protective scale ( Ref 4 ). Depending on the severity of the thermal cycles on a high-temperature component, spallation of thermal barrier, chromized, and aluminized coatings is probable. In certain instances, such as in nickel-base superalloys in high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.9781627081702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2