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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005674
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... Abstract Titanium and its alloys have been used extensively in a wide variety of implant applications, such as artificial heart pumps, pacemaker cases, heart valve parts, and load-bearing bone or hip joint replacements or bone splints. This article discusses the properties of titanium and its...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005660
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... Pacemakers , IEEE Press, 1995 Orthopaedic biomaterials are most commonly meant to perform certain functions by either replacing or augmenting the function of bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, and cartilage as well as guiding healing in the case of trauma. Bone and joint wear and tear or degeneration is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005680
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... components of a pacemaker. Microresistance spot welding connects leads to terminal pins, and laser microwelds join couplings to the coil. In addition, the battery and circuitry are enclosed in a titanium case that is hermetically sealed using pulsed Nd:YAG laser welding. Fig. 17 Welded components in a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... mechanisms in some of the more common medical device materials, namely, stainless steels, titanium alloys, cobalt-base alloys, and nitinol. It presents case histories with examples for failure analysis. cleaning cobalt-base alloys corrosion destructive examination device redesign exemplars...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003140
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... most closely matches that of the optics. Because of its unique corrosion behavior, titanium is used extensively in prosthetic devices such as artificial heart pumps, pacemaker cases, heart-valve parts, and load-bearing bone or hip-joint replacements or bone splints. (In general, body fluids are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005682
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
..., endosseous dental implants, pacemaker cases, and heart valve cages ( Ref 18 ). To improve the strength for load-bearing applications such as total joint replacements, the alloy Ti-6Al-4V ELI (ASTM F136, the extra-low interstitial, or ELI, alloy composed of titanium, 6 wt% Al, and 4 wt% V) was chosen. This Ti...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005659
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... special cases, the risk factor for a device may be high but acceptable when the device represents a unique way to preserve a patient's ability to maintain an acceptable lifestyle. Biocompatibility implies that the local or systemic response does not impair the device function or the health of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... this case, a polymer) to be considered safe in a biological context, such as for contact with human tissue. Initially, the biocompatibility of a polymer was based on its resistance to the demands placed on it by being in the body and relied on the polymer not responding in any adverse way so as to...
Book Chapter

By Matthew Donachie
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003168
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., and so on—where hard tissue (bony structures) must be repaired or replaced. Metals also find application as stents (in angioplasty), leads and cases (in pacemakers), and surgical clips or staples. Dental applications of metals center around amalgam or gold to repair cavities or replace broken teeth...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001312
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... appearance of the metal and to produce a smooth, tight surface. Buffing is used as a final finishing operation and is particularly adaptable to finishing a localized area of a part. Parts such as body prostheses, pacemakers, and heart valves require a highly buffed, tight surface to prevent entrapment of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
..., one usually refers to the dynamic value. Instrumentation and equipment for tribology testing of biomaterials can either be commercially acquired or built to suit a specific application or a particular in-service condition that is to be simulated. In many cases, a commercially available machine may...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... shielding, and limitations on device dimensions due to patient anatomy. Each of these potential problems has a profound effect on the material out of which a device may be made, which is not the case for materials used for other engineering applications. Additionally, since these materials are placed in a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005653
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... alloys have been used in orthopaedic applications in greatest amounts related to fracture fixation devices and total joint arthroplasties. Alloys of cobalt, titanium, and iron also have been used in cardiovascular applications such as heart valves, stents, and pacemakers. In spinal applications, metallic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005673
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... steel diaphragm Electrodes and lead wires Anodic, cathodic, and sensing electrodes and lead wires; intramuscular stimulation, bone growth stimulation, cardiac pacemaker (cathode), electromyography (EMG), electroencephalogram (EEG), and lead wires in a large number of devices; types 304, 316, and 6L...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., oxygen-rich metallic case beneath the scale in order to avoid cracking during subsequent working operations. Heavy grease, oil, and black lubricant coatings resulting from cold working are removed by alkaline or caustic soaking, followed by acid pickling. To remove soil or light oil from a metal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005669
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... implants (neural aneurysm and microvascular clamps) as well as conducting leads for pacemakers, in which retention of form to ensure desired electrode positioning is required. There is a note of caution in this regard, however. In the 1990s, a cardiac pacing lead system was designed with an Elgiloy shaped...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005675
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... psi); B: 10–20 MPa (1.5–3.0 ksi). Source: Ref 4 , Ref 5 , Ref 6 Materials that are bioactive develop an adherent interface with tissues that resists substantial mechanical forces. In many cases, the interfacial strength of adhesion is equivalent or greater than the cohesive strength of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... as nitrates, hydroxides, and bisulfates will eventually attack gold but only at elevated temperatures. The corrosion resistance of gold in over 40 organic compounds is given in Table 11 . In all cases, gold was found to be resistant enough for commercial use. Table 10 Corrosion of gold in...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... modification of functional requirements and performance specifications may adversely affect utility and marketability. Table 2 compares the cost of various engineered materials. In some cases, the purchase cost of materials accounts for about one-half of the total cost of the finished product ( Ref 1 ). It...