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p-type metal-deficit oxides

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003589
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Abstract This article describes the Schottky defect and the Frenkel defect in oxides. It provides information on the p-type metal-deficit oxides and n-type semiconductor oxides. The article discusses diffusion mechanisms and laws of diffusion proposed by Fick. It explains the oxide texture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003611
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... of specific ions to the oxide lattice. For p -type metal deficit oxides, for example, the addition of cations of higher valence than the native cations results in an increase in the number of cation vacancies and therefore an increase in the oxidation rate, while lower-valence cation additions have...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003400
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... and debonding and sliding along the fiber–matrix interfaces. The inelastic strains impart a high toughness to CFCCs in essentially the same manner that dislocation plasticity imparts high toughness to metallic alloys. That is, the inelasticity reduces the local levels of stress around strain-concentrating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003727
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... steep temperature gradients. Fig. 38 Cross section through a 75 mm (3 in.) diam alloy 1100 ingot, direct-chill cast. Center cracks at arrow. Etchant: Tucker's reagent. Actual size. Source: Ref 4 Inclusions and Oxide Films According to recent research ( Ref 28 ), liquid metals cannot...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001454
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... or silicon-bronze alloys that contain aluminum require special attention, because of the tenacity of the surface oxides. Generally, a special American Welding Society (AWS) type 4 flux is used in conjunction with low-melting-point, high-silver-percentage filler metals. Copper-nickel alloys are widely...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
..., and other debris that deposit on dental material surfaces are discussed. The article evaluates the types of alloys available for dental applications, including direct filling alloys, crown and bridge alloys, partial denture alloys, porcelain fused to metal alloys, wrought wire alloys, soldering alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... was borne out a few years later with the discovery that arsenic interferes with the function of 6.8-dithiooctanoic acid in biologic oxidation ( Ref 18 ). BAL has been found to form stable chelates in vivo with many toxic metals including inorganic mercury, antimony, bismuth, cadmium, chromium, cobalt...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...) gas supply of N 2 . In the latter case, the purpose of the ions is to activate and control surface chemical reactions. Table 2 is a selected compilation of materials that have been grown using IBAD processes. For application to metals, the oxides and pure metals are often used as corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... Abstract Powder metallurgy (PM) high-alloy tool steels (HATS) have unique properties that assist them in solving various problems related to machining of metal components. This article describes the cost-intensive PM processing routes of HATS, as well as their major properties, including...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... of power, frequency, and coil length in induction heating prior to metal hot working is highly subjective and is affected by designer past experience, the type of heated metal, required temperature uniformity and cycle time, application specifics, and so on. One quick way to estimate a rough order...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005961
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... hardening wrought stainless steels Table 1 Composition of selected AISI standard precipitation hardening wrought stainless steels Alloy name (type) (b) UNS No. Element, wt% (a) C S P Si Cr Ni Cu Al Mn Nb+Ta Other Martensitic 13-8 PH (XM-13) S13800 0.05 0.008 0.01...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005865
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... of stress concentrations at the fillets), impact cracking (due to the occasional impact loads), bearing seizure, and excessive wear of bearing surfaces ( Ref 4 , 5 ). Overheating of journal surfaces due to improper lubrication caused by a contamination of lubricants and metal-to-metal contact is another...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
...); and, in the case of a metal, the degree of oxidation; and T is temperature in degrees Kelvin. When energy Q i emitted by a heat source is incident onto a body ( Fig. 12 ), a portion Q r of that energy is reflected, a portion Q a is absorbed, and remainder Q t is transmitted. The ratio ρ r = Q...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24A.a0006966
EISBN: 978-1-62708-439-0
... Abstract This article provides an overview of currently available metal AM processes for the medical industry; outlines a step-by-step review of the typical workflow for design, manufacturing, evaluation, and implantation of patient-specific AM devices; and examines the existing research trends...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... of induction heating prior to metal hot forming, the limitations of those techniques, and their subjective nature. The selection of frequency and power in induction heat treating applications is subjective to an even greater degree, being affected by not only the process specifics but also by the type of alloy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... or another cementite precipitate. Also, in addition to grain-boundary precipitates there appeared to be only two distinct types of Widmanstätten precipitates, those with relatively large length-to-width aspect ratios made up of several subunits (lathlike) and those with relatively small aspect ratios...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005863
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... testing methods, namely, magnetic particle testing, ultrasonic testing, and eddy current testing to evaluate induction-hardened components. case depth frequency induction hardening inductors inspection nondestructive testing quenching surface hardness evaluation Introduction Metals...