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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005931
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... monitoring and control of motion and position of various mechanical components with the help of mechanical limit switches, proximity sensors, and distance- and position-measuring devices. Using inputs from both flow meters and sensors, such as thermocouples and oxygen sensors, flow measurement control...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005925
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Oxidizing or inert 1480 2700 RN Pt 1769 3216 104 S SP 90Pt-10Rh 1850 3360 189 Oxidizing or inert 1480 2700 SN Pt 1769 3216 104 B BP 70Pt-30Rh 1927 3501 190 Oxidizing, vacuum or inert 1700 3100 BN 94Pt-6Rh 1826 3319 175 (a) OFHC, oxygen-free high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005928
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... exist where different methods are used to evaluate the atmosphere using two technologies, such as an in situ oxygen sensor and infrared gas analyzer. Infrared analyzers are based on the principle that any compound present in the mixture will absorb infrared energy in proportion to its concentration in...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... modulators and displays. Besides piezoelectrics, a wide range of ceramic materials have been developed as gas, oxygen, temperature, voltage, and humidity sensors. Typically, these are based on semiconducting oxides such as TiO 2 , ZnO, modified BaTiO 3 , SnO 2 , and MgCr 2 O 4 . Because many of these...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... that in air induces an electromotive force (voltage), or emf, across the electrodes. The partial pressure of oxygen in the furnace atmosphere is determined by the voltage output (emf) of the sensor. Thus, carbon potential can be controlled by controlling the temperature in the furnace and the voltage...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003050
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... and Recovery Act and Clean Air Act. The Clean Air Act requires all states to meet minimum emissions standards for nitrogen-oxygen compounds, volatile organic compounds, and carbon monoxide. ceramic environmental regulations glass in-process scrap industrial waste recycling LIKE MOST...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... table that lists the effect of iron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and density on the corrosion resistance of the sintered austenitic stainless steels. chemical composition corrosion resistance high-density powder metallurgy isostatic pressing mechanical properties medium-density powder...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005341
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Ceramic, engine sensor Ceramic oxygen sensors Silicon, electronic chips Silicon wafers Silicon nitride, bearing elements Silicon nitride bearing elements Various materials, turbines Gas turbine components (not yet in production) PCRT is effective on materials that are stiff and...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... silver is removed, and the glass clears. The electronics industry relies heavily on advanced ceramic materials, mainly oxides, for substrates, capacitors, actuators and transducers, oxygen sensors, varistors, temperature sensors, and a variety of glassy materials for a host of devices and packaging...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... material: modifying the basic polymer so that exposure to heat and oxygen will not produce combustion, and using flame-retardant additives. The first approach does not improve the fire resistance of polymeric materials already being used, and polymers modified to improve heat resistance may also have...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... in a blast furnace from iron ore, limestone, and coal (coke) (see Fig. 1(a) ). Because it contains excessively high levels of silicon, manganese, carbon, and other elements, this liquid iron, together with scrap and fluxing agents, is then introduced into either a basic oxygen furnace or electric...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003150
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides in exhaust gases to tolerable levels. Other automotive applications include oxygen sensors and certain types of spark plugs, both of which use small quantities of platinum. The nonautomotive applications of platinum-group metals are also...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005968
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... type can take place in low oxygen concentrations, resulting in significant negative calibration drifts. Even in an air atmosphere there can be adverse effects upon TUS test thermocouples. For example, in a TUS performed at an elevated temperature with ceramic fiber insulated thermocouple wire, in a...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005288
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...-mass insulation. The integrated melting, homogenizing, and casting in an all-graphite system produces a high-quality product with minimal residual-element impurities and low oxygen level, capable of being drawn to very fine wire. The initial casting machines manufactured and used internally by United...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006679
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... by the application an electric current in an electrochemical cell. This process of chemical splitting was quickly discovered in 1800 by William Nicholson, who copied Volta’s battery and observed the decomposition (electrolysis) of water into oxygen and hydrogen. Soon thereafter in 1839, Christian...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... formed directly from methane gas. High temperatures can be used in plasma carburizing because the process takes place in an oxygen-free vacuum, thus producing a greater carburized case than both atmospheric gas and vacuum carburizing ( Fig. 8 ). Other advantages of plasma carburizing include improved...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... into the top of the furnace, and air, often preheated and/or enriched with oxygen, is blown in at the bottom through tuyeres. The coke burns in the air, melting the metal that trickles down to the bottom of the furnace or well, where it is tapped. Sectional views of cupolas are shown in Fig. 6...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
..., and because it is a major constituent in many prepared atmospheres. The chemical makeup of air is approximately 79% nitrogen and 21% oxygen, with trace amounts of carbon dioxide. As an atmosphere, air behaves like an oxygen atmosphere because oxygen is the most reactive constituent in air...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005660
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... bone. The scaffolding was then transformed into living tissue by placing it in a similar-shaped chamber in combination with stem cells extracted from bone marrow, fed with oxygen and nutrients. If such a combination of imaging, scaffold manufacture, and biological technology was at the disposal of the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... the specific and combined effects of heat and chemical reactants, such as oxygen and ozone. Various aspects of this degradation may be important in determining the suitability of the plastic for a given application. The service temperature of a material indicates its ability to retain a certain...