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oxygen scavengers

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006090
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... Table 1 Properties of iron powders used for oxygen scavenging applications Properties Product name (a) (type of elemental iron) NF-325 (reduced iron) P-100N (reduced iron) A-220 (electrolytic iron) Chemical Assay, % 98.1 98.5 99.2 Impurities  Acid-insoluble...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003699
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... for Waterflood Treatment Plants,” Paper 6096, presented at the fall meeting, Society of Petroleum Engineers , 1976 48. Snavely E.S. and Blount F.E. , Rates of Reaction of Dissolved Oxygen with Scavengers in Sweet and Sour Brines , Corrosion , Vol 25 ( No. 10 ), 1969 , p 397 49...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004154
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... conditions are sufficiently oxidizing to form soluble Fe 2+ ions but not sufficiently oxidizing to form Fe 3+ ions needed for protective oxide formation. Conditions known to accelerate thinning include flow impingement on pipe walls, low pH, excessive reducing agent (oxygen scavenger) concentrations...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003805
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... treatment. In modern boiler systems, DO is first removed mechanically and then by chemically scavenging the remainder. The mechanical degasification is typically carried out with vacuum degasifiers that reduce oxygen levels to less than 0.5 to 1.0 mg/L or with deaerating heaters that reduce oxygen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004210
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... oxygen contamination through leaking pump seals, casing and process vents, open hatches, open handling (as in mud pits during drilling, trucking, and so on), and in seawater-injection systems highly likely. Also, failure of oxygen-removal processes (gas stripping and chemical scavenging) is a relatively...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003701
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... reducing or scavenging the oxygen in the system and by mechanically deaerating the feedwater before it enters the boiler. Foaming or carryover can be controlled by blowdown or with chemicals. Deaeration Mechanical deaeration is the removal of noncondensable dissolved gasses. While the removal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004152
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... failure, steam leaks 100–10,000 Flow-accelerated corrosion wall thinning of vessels and piping FAC, possibly cavitation High flow velocity, turbulence, low oxygen, excess oxygen scavenger, material, CH V, UI Leaks 100–1000 Cracking of internal supports and spray nozzles CF O, D V, poor...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... superheater should be uniform across the superheater, differences in inlet temperature will lead to differences in tube metal temperature. The fifth factor is uneven burner adjustments. Uneven flue-gas or oxygen distribution due to maladjusted or worn fuel burners will have the same effect as an increase...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003700
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... concentrations. The filming inhibitor selected should not cause an emulsion of the overhead fluids or adversely affect downstream processing units. Scavengers perform as corrosion inhibitors by removing the corrosive species from the process. Scavengers are used to remove oxygen, cyanide, hydrogen sulfide...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003607
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... is effective in some cases. Elimination of cathodic depolarizers such as oxygen (deaeration of water by thermomechanical means plus oxygen scavengers such as sodium sulfite or hydrazine) is every effective in some aqueous systems. Barrier coatings of a metallic nature have already been discussed. Inert...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001092
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... the Williams Gold Company of Buffalo, NY, in conjunction with Dr. William S.Murray, developed a series of gold-base dental alloys containing indium. Indium acts as an oxygen scavenger, resulting in alloys with improved tensile strength, ductility, and resistance to discoloration. Indium is still used in dental...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003670
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... rates; temperature; pH, use of a new chemical, for example, corrosion inhibitor, scale inhibitor, or oxygen scavenger; or shutdown periods. ...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... to hydrogen absorption and potential steam reaction (see the section “Degassing of Copper Alloys” in this article). The oxidizing fluxes usually include cupric oxide or manganese dioxide (MnO 2 ), which decompose at copper alloy melting temperatures to generate the oxygen required. Figure 7 illustrates...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... - , a commonly used oxygen scavenger, can be rapidly disproportionated in situ by Desulfocapsa species to produce sulfate and sulfur or sulfide, all of which can promote corrosion ( Ref 22 ). In aerobic systems, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria such as Thiobacillus can oxidize reduced forms of sulfur to strongly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006405
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... and radical scavengers, depending on the mode of their controlling action. Sulfur- and phosphorus-containing inhibitors, such as sulfides, dithiocarbamates, phosphites, and dithiophosphates, act as hydroperoxide decomposers. Nitrogen- and oxygen-containing inhibitors, such as arylamines and phenols, act...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... pH, and boiler water treatments (for once-through systems, these are feedwater treatments). Impurity removal is by boiler blowdown, mechanical deaeration in the condenser and deaerator, and oxygen scavenging (usually with hydrazine) ( Ref 6 ). For once-through systems, demineralization...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and ammonium bisulfite as an oxygen scavenger. Closer inspection of the data, however, showed that the residual concentrations of the oxygen scavenger correlated with measured corrosion rates, indicating that the ammonium bisulfite was actually being used as a nutrient by the SRB responsible for the corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
..., air in-leakage, makeup water, and improperly operated condensate polishers. Water treatment chemicals, such as NaOH, used for boiler water treatment and amines, oxygen scavengers, dispersants, and chelants can also generate corrosive conditions in the turbine ( Ref 50 , 51 , 52 , 53 , 54 , 55...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003621
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... in Table 4 . Oxygen scavenging was ensured by the addition of catalyzed sodium bisulfite (NaHSO 3 ) to the storage tanks. Treated water entered the top of the tray section of the deaerators through five or six spray nozzles and was stored in the horizontal tanks below the deaerators. Metallurgical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... of carbonates and bicarbonates in boiler water, decreasing the severity of corrosion of lead. The oxygen level in the makeup water is usually controlled by adding oxygen scavengers, such as hydrazine or sodium sulfite. In general, the corrosion rate in natural and domestic waters depends on the degree...