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oxygen probes

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Published: 30 September 2014
Fig. 21 Components of a typical oxygen probe for controlling carburizing atmospheres. Detail B shows construction of X-cap tip. More
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Published: 30 September 2014
Fig. 22 Voltage across electrodes of a typical oxygen probe as a function of carbon potential at four temperatures, for endothermic gas enriched with natural gas and containing 20% CO More
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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 14 Schematic of a zirconia oxygen probe. Source: Ref 4 More
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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 15 Typical oxygen probe installation in a carburizing furnace. Source: Ref 4 More
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Published: 01 December 1998
Fig. 9 Elements of a typical oxygen probe for controlling carburizing atmospheres More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005928
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
..., chromatographs, oxygen probes, Orsat analyzers, infrared analyzers, dewpoint analyzers, and hot-wire analyzers. Finally, it discusses the advantages, disadvantages, and limitations of these analyzers. atmosphere control carbon potential dew point gas chromatography heat treating furnaces heat...
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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 27 H 2 -O 2 measuring system for nitriding and nitrocarburizing atmospheres mounted on the back side of a horizontal retort furnace. The hydrogen analyzer is mounted on top of the flange, with the oxygen probe sticking from the back into the furnace retort. Courtesy of Process-Electronic More
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... for the wide variety of furnace atmospheres used can be categorized into three major types: oxygen probe, infrared, and dew point. Direct oxygen or dew point monitoring devices are also often used for applications such as bell furnace annealing. The oxygen probe is an in situ type device; that is, it directly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... reaction: 2 CO + O 2 ↔ 2 CO 2 This reaction is important in describing the formation of intergranular oxidation and also in helping control carburizing processes through the use of zirconia oxygen probes. The principle of operation for zirconia oxygen probes is described...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005806
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... by moving oxygen from carbon to hydrogen: CO + H 2 O ↔ CO 2 + H 2     with K w = f ( T ) = p CO 2 × p H 2 [ ( p CO ) × ( p H 2 O ) ] where K w is the equilibrium coefficient for the water-gas reaction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005799
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... without the need to measure water vapor directly. Zirconia oxygen probes are significantly lower in cost than NDIR analyzers and are more commonly applied in industrial gas carburizing applications. The calculation and control of carbon potential by oxygen probe is based on the following equilibrium...
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Published: 15 June 2020
Fig. 8 Oxide dispersion. (a) Scanning transmission electron micrographs and oxygen energy-dispersive spectroscopy maps of a bonded interface adjacent to a void showing the presence of an ~500 nm oxide dispersion. Source: Ref 42 . (b) Atom probe tomography reconstructions showing the interface More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... for microstructural analysis of metals, such as scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, and transmission electron microscopy, are then reviewed. The article contains tables listing analytical methods used for characterization of metals and alloys and surface analysis techniques. It ends...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
.... The techniques used for performing microanalysis include scanning electron microscopy and electron probe X-ray microanalysis. The article describes surface analysis techniques, including Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and ion-scattering spectroscopy. Bulk analysis techniques...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002387
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... observed is an important indicator Electrical resistance Measures change in probe resistance. Widely used for carbon steel fabrications in gas and liquid phases. Automated readings Corrosion potential Identifies corrosion conditions (i.e., active, passive, pitting, stress-corrosion cracking regimes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005944
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
..., and heating before subsequent heat treating. The high conductivity and low viscosity of molten sodium give it a high heat transfer coefficient. On the other hand, sodium is chemically reactive with water. If sodium touches water, it extracts and combines with the oxygen of water, leaving the hydrogen...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005340
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...) analyzed include ( Ref 1 ): Emission spectroscopy for Li, B, Na, and heavier elements Hot extraction for hydrogen Combustion analysis for carbon Neutron activation for oxygen Gas chromatography for aluminum carbides and calcium carbides Although the above methods have been used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006574
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... to a void showing the presence of an ~500 nm oxide dispersion. Source: Ref 42 . (b) Atom probe tomography reconstructions showing the interface of an Al-6061/Al-6061 weld. The composition measurements show that the oxygen-rich spots (marked in the figure using dashed circles) have a maximum oxygen content...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... Abstract This article explores the use of the electrochemical and nonelectrochemical techniques for measuring the corrosion behavior of buried metals and the types of probes used. The electrical resistance technique is the main nonelectrochemical technique used for measuring corrosion rate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005943
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
..., valve motors, oxygen probe replacements, outside analyzer maintenance, calibrations, and many others. Quenchant costs include the cost of additive quench materials such as water, polymers, oils, gases used for quenching, and other quenchant costs. Repairs/maintenance include the cost...