1-20 of 58 Search Results for

oxygen bleaching

Follow your search
Access your saved searches in your account

Would you like to receive an alert when new items match your search?
Close Modal
Sort by
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004190
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... chlorine-free and nonchlorine bleaching stages, selection of material for bleaching equipment, developments in oxygen bleaching, and the use of highly corrosion-resistant materials for bleach plant equipment. The article reviews the materials used in the construction of paper machine components...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... radiation, heat (and cold), and to a much lesser extent, nuclear radiation. Solar Energy The sun was formed 4.5 billion years ago and is composed of 91.2% H and 7.8% He gas. The remaining 1% is comprised of oxygen, carbon, silicon, iron, magnesium, neon, sulfur, and calcium. Each element is important...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003844
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... (solar radiation, heat and temperature variation, and nuclear radiation), permeation (moisture, solvent retention, chemical, and oxygen), stress (drying and curing, vibration, and impact and abrasion), and biological influences (microbiological and macrobiological). coatings paints protective...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... stage Ozone, Peroxide, and Oxygen Oxidative bleaching takes place, sometimes to stabilize brightness. The typical environment includes: Temperature: ambient to 70 °C (160 °F) pH: 9 to 11 Fumes are not corrosive; humidity, spillage, leaks, and so on are similar to other bleaching...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003622
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... characteristics through the formation of an invisible and adherent chromium-rich oxide surface film. This oxide forms and heals itself in the presence of oxygen. Other elements added to improve particular characteristics include nickel, molybdenum, copper, titanium, aluminum, silicon, niobium, nitrogen, sulfur...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... they are strongly alkaline. The same is true of all chlorides, bromides, and iodides. Fluorides, however, will attack tantalum. A detailed corrosion study was conducted in a chlorine dioxide (ClO 2 ) plant for pulp bleaching in an effort to secure useful information on the performance of various metals...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003701
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... treatment or a combination of internal treatment and external treatment. Corrosion is primarily caused by oxygen in the feedwater. Oxygen corrosion is prevented by chemically reducing or scavenging the oxygen in the system and by mechanically deaerating the feedwater before it enters the boiler. Foaming...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0004050
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... conductivity and low diffusion coefficients for metal ions and oxygen In oxidation-resistant coatings, the protective-scale-forming elements are used as main alloying elements. The growth of the protective scale in alloys depends on the capability for selective oxidation of these elements...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006134
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... Floatation devices Fluidizer plates for fluid beds Friction reduction Material handling/transport Vacuum plates Mold release Gas/liquid contacting Aerators Spargers Bubblers Agitation of liquids Chlorine & oxygen bleaching Enhancing chemical reactions Oxygenation for fish...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... by chlorine published prior to 1976. The Chlorine Institute ( Ref 4 ), a trade association of chlorine manufacturers, also provides information on handling chlorine. Handling Commercial Chlorine Commercial chlorine is widely used for bleaching and water treatment. It is typically handled as a dry...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... their total energy can be absorbed within a few micrometers of the surface. Ultraviolet radiation absorption on the surface of a material can result in chalking, which is a surface film that breaks molecular bonds. Ultraviolet radiation also causes discoloration (yellowing and bleaching) and loss...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003662
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... attack on some specimens in a test assembly may influence crevice tightness on others in the same assembly. One area in which test rack exposures have been extensively used is the pulp and paper industry. For example, Ref 5 discusses results from bleach plant exposure in which crevice corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... practices, most commonly argon-oxygen decarburization (AOD), greatly facilitated the production of stainless steels. In addition to permitting the use of lower-cost forms of alloy element additions, AOD also allows precise control of individual elements. This process also makes possible the economical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003848
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... as well as oxygen, ozone, and other strongly oxidizing agents. Nitrile Rubber (NBR) Nitrile rubber (NBR) is composed of two monomers in random sequence, butadiene (BD) and acrylonitrile (ACN). This backbone chain has some unsaturation locations allowing thermal and chemical attack so...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003823
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... . They all have low alloy contents. They are based on the alpha structure, that is, the hexagonal close-packed lattice, with dilute additions of solid-solution strengthening and alpha-stabilizing elements such as oxygen and tin. However, in niobium-containing alloys, there is the presence of some niobium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... (a venturi with separator) and are quenched as SO 2 is absorbed. The components that often have the severest problems, however, are the outlet duct and stack. Here, the condensates are more acidic, the gases are highly oxygenated, and the presence of chlorides and fluorides can cause serious corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... to mechanical damage Good impact resistance in tension or compression mode Good corrosion resistance Excellent chemical resistance Low permeability to oxygen, moisture, and corrosive ions High electrical resistivity Good adhesion Good formability after coating Good mechanical properties...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... of transpassive dissolution of the film or the initiation of another anodic reaction, such as oxygen evolution, on the specimen surface. The passive film is subject to pitting corrosion when chloride or another aggressive species is present. The onset of pitting is marked by a sudden increase in the current...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... alloys, the location of the attack will be outside but immediately adjacent to the crevice due to the formation of metal ion concentration cells. Classic crevice corrosion resulting from oxygen depletion and attack within crevices is less common in copper alloys. Aluminum- and chromium-bearing copper...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004170
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... extensive use of dissimilar-metal contacts. Galvanic corrosion, pitting in electrodeposits ( Fig. 1 ), anodic corrosion (oxidation of a metal, such as aluminum, at the anode sites), and cathodic corrosion (attack on cathodically biased aluminum by a hydroxyl ion from cathodic reduction of oxygen or water...