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oxygen bleaching

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004190
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... for elemental chlorine-free and nonchlorine bleaching stages, selection of material for bleaching equipment, developments in oxygen bleaching, and the use of highly corrosion-resistant materials for bleach plant equipment. The article reviews the materials used in the construction of paper machine components...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003622
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... such as 904L (Fe-22Cr- 26Ni-4.5Mo) are balanced to avoid δ-ferrite precipitation and thus minimize σ-phase. Highly oxidizing environments such as those found in bleach plants could conceivably attack δ-ferrite networks and σ phase. However, this mode of attack is not often a cause of failure, probably...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... coatings in Table 1 can be found in the section “Coating Systems and Materials” within the text. Fig. 5 Process stages in conversion of wood to finished paper products Fig. 6 Chip-handling area in a pulp mill Fig. 7 Bleach plant area in a kraft pulp mill Fig. 9...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... Layer Environmental Effects Resulting in Coating Deterioration Conclusion Energy Related Degradation Permeation Effects Stress Influences Biological Influences Moisture Permeation Solvent Permeation Chemical Permeation Oxygen and Other Gas Permeation Permeation of Water...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003844
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Gold (III) or auric Oxygen O 2 … Iron Fe 2 or 3 Iron (II) or ferrous Iron (III) or ferric Cobalt Co 2 or 3 Cobalt (II) or cobaltous Cobalt (III) or cobaltic Lead Pb 2 or 4 Lead (II) or plumbus Lead (IV) or plumbic Nickel Ni 2 or 4 Nickel (II) or nickelous...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006134
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
.../transport Vacuum plates Mold release Gas/liquid contacting Aerators Spargers Bubblers Agitation of liquids Chlorine & oxygen bleaching Enhancing chemical reactions Oxygenation for fish farming Oxygen & volatile stripping Hydrogenation Bioremediation Water/oil...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003662
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... for Conducting Corrosion Tests in Field Application,” G 4, Wear and Erosion; Metal Corrosion , Vol 03.02 , Annual Book of ASTM Standards , American Society for Testing and Materials 5. Tuthill A.H. , Resistance of Highly Alloyed Materials and Titanium to Localized Corrosion in Bleach Plant...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... consist of either the organic sulfur compounds produced from digesting the pulp or the chlorine-related oxidizing agents produced from bleaching the pulp. The reduced sulfur compounds are generally handled in FRP construction. Temperature limitations are not normally a factor, because most...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... they are strongly alkaline. The same is true of all chlorides, bromides, and iodides. Fluorides, however, will attack tantalum. A detailed corrosion study was conducted in a chlorine dioxide (ClO 2 ) plant for pulp bleaching in an effort to secure useful information on the performance of various metals...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... practices, most commonly argon-oxygen decarburization (AOD), greatly facilitated the production of stainless steels. In addition to permitting the use of lower-cost forms of alloy element additions, AOD also allows precise control of individual elements. This process also makes possible the economical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0004050
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... volumes of oxide and parent metal and differences in CTE Oxide film has low electrical conductivity and low diffusion coefficients for metal ions and oxygen In oxidation-resistant coatings, the protective-scale-forming elements are used as main alloying elements. The growth of the protective...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003969
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... undercutting, probably resulting from changes in location of the hoses during storage and use. Bleach, used to deodorize the pungent smell of the sulfur compounds being transferred (and presumably left) inside the hoses, contributed to chloride-induced pitting. Remnants of the organic fluid/bleach/water...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
.... , “Materials Performance in High Temperature, Halogen-Bearing Environments,” Paper 16, presented at Corrosion/84, National Association of Corrosion Engineers , 1984 38. McNallan M.J. , Oh J.M. , and Liang W.W. , “High-Temperature Corrosion of Metals in Argon-Oxygen-Chlorine Mixtures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001429
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... method for determining susceptibility to intergranular attack in the original C-type alloy and the newer C-276 and C-4 alloys ( Ref 1 ). The introduction of the argon-oxygen decarburization (AOD) process in the late 1960s made the production of alloy C-276 commercially viable. The maximum carbon content...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003848
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
...>1≤2 … 8 >0.5–0.75 >5.0–10.0 >4–6 90–<94 … >2–5=3>2≤5 >0.9–9 7 >0.75–1.0 >10.0–20.0 >6–9 85–<90 Slightly discolored, slightly bleached >5–10=4>5≤10 … 6 >1.0–1.5 >20.0–30.0 >8–12 80–<85 Discolored; yellows, slightly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... to mechanical damage Good impact resistance in tension or compression mode Good corrosion resistance Excellent chemical resistance Low permeability to oxygen, moisture, and corrosive ions High electrical resistivity Good adhesion Good formability after coating Good mechanical properties...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
..., the amorphous degradation processes are autocatalytic; that is, the degradation products accelerate the degradation reactions. Thermal degradation also occurs in an autocatalytic process, at lower temperatures, when oxygen is present in the environment ( Ref 15 ). Thus, oxygen is absorbed at 100 °C (212 °F...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006014
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... surfaces) must be thoroughly cleaned to remove and kill mildew spores. The cleaning solution should consist of a mild bleach solution (typically up to a maximum of one part household bleach and three parts warm water), proprietary cleaning solutions, and/or mildewcides. While these cleaning solutions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004170
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... sulfide (H 2 S) Pulp and paper industries, chemical industry, sewage plants, landfills, oil refineries, animal shelters, volcanic activity, swamp areas, marine tidal areas All copper- and silver-base metals Chlorine (Cl 2 ) (gas most important) Bleaching plants in industries, metal production...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... element for certain high-purity alloys Zirconium Getter material in tubes in the electronics industry; fuel claddings, fasteners, and fixtures for nuclear reactors Titanium Components for bleaching equipment and desalination plants in the chemical industry; superconductive wires; turbine engine...