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oxidation inhibitors

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006405
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
.... The chemically active additives include dispersants, detergents, antiwear, and extreme-pressure agents, oxidation inhibitors, and rust and corrosion inhibitors. The chemically inert additives include emulsifiers, demulsifiers, pour-point depressants, foam inhibitors, and viscosity improvers. The article also...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
.... It reviews the functions of additives, such as friction modifiers, antiwear additives, viscosity modifiers, corrosion inhibitors, oxidation inhibitors, dispersants, and detergents. The article discusses the physical properties of liquid lubricants and the performance characteristics of lubricants...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006413
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... are discussed here, as they directly impact engine-oil fuel economy and robustness. Oxidation Inhibitors Hydrocarbons (and also synthetics with hydrocarbon groups such as esters and polyglycols) oxidize in a chain reaction via free radicals (R*) and peroxides to produce acids and, eventually, high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003672
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... inhibitors corrosion protection CORROSION is an oxidation reaction where the corroding metal is the anode in an electrochemical cell. In addition to the anode, there are three other components that are necessary for corrosion to occur: an aggressive environment, a cathode where the reduction reaction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... proposals on a realistic basis. Chemical cleaning solutions include mineral acids, organic acids, bases, complexing agents, oxidizing agents, reducing agents, and organic solvents. Inhibitors and surfactants are added to reduce corrosion and to improve cleaning efficiency. Following the cleaning cycle...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in the environment; change in the alloy or heat treatment; change in design; use of galvanic protection; use of inhibitors; use of nonmetallic coatings and liners; application of metallic coatings; use of surface treatments, thermal spray, or other surface modifications; corrosion monitoring; and preventive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... leaching in those operations employing cobalt-cemented tungsten carbide tools. Toluyltriazole has been used successfully to protect copper sheet from staining and corrosion. Oxidation Inhibitors Oxidation inhibitors, also called antioxidants, are formulated into metalworking lubricants to minimize...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... the pipe surface physically such that water and dissolved oxygen cannot reach the metal surface and the second is to add chemical inhibitors to alter water chemistry. copper corrosion oxidation reaction potable water distribution systems reduction reaction chemical inhibitors building systems...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003701
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... processes which occur in water-recirculating systems and the effect of dissolved gases, temperature, pH, suspended solids, dissolved salts, and scale deposition on corrosivity of water, are also reviewed. The article also considers anodic and cathodic inhibitors and the control of corrosion in municipal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... is a process in which a solution of a mineral acid, organic acid, or acid salt, in combination with a wetting agent and detergent, is used to remove oxide, shop soil, oil, grease, and other contaminants from metal surfaces, with or without the application of heat. The distinction between acid cleaning and acid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003698
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... ) is that inhibitors are designated as passivators, organic inhibitors, and vapor-phase inhibitors. Passivating Inhibitors Passivating inhibitors are usually inorganic oxidizing chemicals such as chromates, nitrites, and molybdates that passivate the metal and shift the corrosion potential several tenths...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001229
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
.... acid pickling batch pickling continuous pickling descaling electrolytic pickling hydrochloric acid inhibitors pickling pickling defects pickling equipment precleaning safety practices scale removal spent pickle liquor disposal steel sulfuric acid OXIDE SCALE must be completely...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003605
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... the inhibitor concentration ( Ref 47 ). Inhibitors tend to interact with the surface in one of three ways: a gettering by a component, such as hydrazine, of a finite amount of impurity, such as oxygen, in the solution; oxidation (passivation) of the surface or incorporation in the three-dimensional oxide...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003600
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
.... The electrochemistry of metal CMP is discussed subsequently. Chemistry of Metal CMP In addition to an abrasive, a metal slurry may consist of an oxidizer, a corrosion inhibitor, a polishing rate accelerator, and a surfactant to modify the abrasives and metal surface. The reduction-potential difference between...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...: (Eq 2) Zn + 2 H + → Zn 2 + + H 2 Zinc reacts with the hydrogen ions of the acid solution to form zinc ions and hydrogen gas. Equation 2 shows that during the reaction, zinc is oxidized to zinc ions, and hydrogen ions are reduced to hydrogen. Thus, Eq 2 can be conveniently...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003700
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Abstract This article provides useful information on the occurrence of corrosion in crude oil refinery units, namely, crude unit, catalytic and thermal cracking units, hydroprocessing units, amine sweetening units, and sour water units. Types and applications of corrosion inhibitors, namely...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003710
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... spectroscopy has been used for not only elemental identity of the surface but also for determining the depth profiles of elements such as the composition of oxide films including the passive films and organic corrosion inhibitor films ( Ref 32 , 33 , 34 , 35 ). Here again quantitative analysis can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004210
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... proper material selection, protective coatings, cathodic protection systems, use of inhibitors, use of nonmetallic materials, and control of the environment. The article reviews the aspects of corrosion that tend to be unique to corrosion as encountered in applications involving oil and gas exploration...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003699
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
...- and low-pressure gas wells. The weighting agent in high-density inhibitors is often zinc chloride (ZnCl 2 ), which may precipitate as zinc sulfide (ZnS) or zinc oxide (ZnO) when applied to sour wells. Data on the fall rates of high-density and regular inhibitors are given in Ref 41 and 42 . Other...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004164
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... inhibitor for copper and brass. One aspect of the chemistry of mercaptobenzothiazole that should be recognized and understood is its sensitivity to light. Mercaptobenzothiazole undergoes an oxidative coupling reaction upon exposure to light to produce a compound that is insoluble in ethylene glycol...