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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... resistance. With the rising cost of both labor and oil-based resins, the drive for reduction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and the demand for long-term durability, there is growing interest in polysiloxane hybrids. Polysiloxanes are used in premium topcoat finishes and have facilitated the trend...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006061
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... an accurate estimate for an industrial painting contract is determining the scope of work. The article describes the method of calculating quantities of materials and labor, surface area takeoff, and equipment costs. It concludes by listing the forgotten costs and presenting information on coating condition...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003714
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... inorganic single salts and 4000 mixtures) www.nist.gov/srd/ University of Akron Hazardous chemical database www.ull.chemistry.uakron.edu/erd/ U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Consumer price indexes for the United States beginning as early as 1913 www.bls.gov/cpi/ Various Material Safety Data...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003804
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... of this, producing 11.2% of the world supply yet consuming only 3.7%. On the other hand, North America imports approximately 20 to 25% of the steel it consumes. Therefore, the impact of imports and trade policies has become a key industry driver ( Ref 1 ). In North America, groundbreaking labor/management...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... into the final part ( Ref 4 , 5 ). Accounting information is employed to develop one of two constructs: a machine rental cost or a variable burden rate. In the former, the costs of the capital, energy, and labor required to operate production equipment is summed and then divided by the time they are used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... the cleaner is allowed to react (2 or 3 min is usually sufficient), work is rinsed with water. The wiping method is practical only for cleaning a few parts at a time or for large, bulky parts that cannot be immersed conveniently in a cleaning bath. Labor cost becomes excessive if many parts are cleaned...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002483
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... systems, there is no allocation of costs to specific activities or no activity-based accounting (ABC) ( Ref 5 ). In such cases there are no data to support design cost estimates. Direct labor for products or parts that have a high yield in manufacturing normally have straightforward cost estimates...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005527
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... accounting (ABC) ( Ref 5 ). In such cases there are no data to support design cost estimates. Direct labor for products or parts that have a high yield in manufacturing normally have straightforward cost estimates, based on statistical correlation to direct labor for past parts of a similar kind. However...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002438
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... very labor intensive in both the disassembly and sorting phases. AT&T Bell Laboratories is developing ( Ref 6 ) a scoring system that allows the “greenness” of a design and its components to be quantified using factors such as ease of separation, environmental impacts of material choices...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002430
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
.... Congress, then sent to the Department of Labor for administration. The regulations were prepared under title 29 of the U.S. Code, published for review and comment in the Federal Register, and issued as legal minimum requirements for design of any products intended for use in any U.S. workplace. Several...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
.... At approximately the same time as Juran published his work, W. Edwards Deming, through his work with the Department of the Census and the Bureau of Labor Statistics, developed the plan-do-check-act concept that still is used today (2014). Deming went on to work with the Japanese in the 1950s and 1960s as part...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... assumptions may have been; that is, unskilled labor performing a skilled task would carry a higher risk than skilled labor performing the same task. Other assumptions may be that equipment is calibrated and working properly (i.e., has not been tampered with or modified), operators have received proper...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... application, by using UHS coatings, cost reductions would be achievable through fewer coats and improved edge coverage, because both would reduce labor costs. Further cost reductions are now available with next-generation UHS coatings that provide rapid return to service. These solvent-free epoxies can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... of accomplishing those functions. The VA process relates the cost of a product to the functions performed by that product. Because product cost is made up of material and labor, the typical ratio being 60 to 40, the VA process places a natural emphasis on the material cost content of a product. (The term...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003847
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
..., rubber linings offer good resistance to thermal or mechanical shock and can be formulated for excellent abrasion resistance. The installation process is very labor-intensive. The sheets are cut and applied by hand to the substrate, and the air is eliminated between the two surfaces with rollers...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... from the mold. A number of advantages can be credited to the SMC compression molding process: High-volume production Excellent part reproducibility Low labor requirement per unit produced Minimum material scrap Excellent design flexibility (from simple to very complex shapes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002490
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... basis). Source: Ref 1 , 2 , 3 Fig. 4 Relative change in tile productions cost factors (1989 relative to 1971). Source: Ref 1 , 2 , 3 It may be noted that the cost of labor is a major factor across the two-decade span, but with automation the productivity per employee nearly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... to the diaphragm. The assembly is inexpensive to manufacture due to low material and labor costs. This low cost makes piezoelectric technology desirable for ultrasonic cleaning. For industrial cleaning, however, piezoelectric transducers have several shortcomings. The most common problem...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001234
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Inventory requirements EPA and OSHA considerations Labor, direct, supervisory, and quality control Future and current needs Traditionally, mechanical finishing has been a centralized service operation for all manufacturing operations within an organization. Although the centralized finishing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006036
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... coatings: Benefits Drawbacks Good durability (abrasion resistance) Variable cure time depending on ambient humidity Fast return-to-service providing labor savings Difficult to downgloss, especially clear coats High build per coat with good “color pop” over decorative stained floors...