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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract This article focuses on the mineral and organic acid cleaning of iron and steel. It begins with a discussion on the application methods, process selection criteria, solution composition, equipment used, and control of process variables in mineral acid cleaning. The article then...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... corrosive media include: hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, hydrofluoric acid, hydrobromic acid, nitric acid, organic acids, salts, seawater, and alkalis. The modes of high-temperature corrosion include oxidation, carburization, metal dusting, sulfidation, nitridation, corrosion by halogens...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Abstract For chemical processing, niobium resists a wide variety of corrosive environments. These environments include mineral acids, many organic acids, liquid metals, and most salt solutions. This article focuses on the mechanisms of corrosion resistance of niobium alloys in these...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... contact with acetic acid (in wooden ducts), microorganisms, and corroded steel-tape armor. Bacterial corrosion usually occurs when aeration is poor and mud, water, or organic matter is present. Bacteria capable of reducing sulfates to sulfides are the principal cause of attack. Microbial decomposition of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... hafnium in specific media, namely, water, steam, hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, sulfuric acid, alkalis, organics, molten metals, and gases. Forms of corrosion, namely, galvanic corrosion, crevice corrosion, and pitting corrosion are included. The article explains the corrosion of hafnium alloys such as...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... article provides a discussion on the mechanism of corrosion resistance and on the behavior of tantalum in different corrosive environments, namely, acids; salts; organic compounds; reagents, foods, and pharmaceuticals; body fluids and tissues; and gases. It contains several tables that summarize the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... describes the corrosion behavior of copper alloys in specific environments. It reviews the corrosion characteristics of copper and copper alloys in various acids, alkalis, salts, organic compounds, and gases. The article provides information on the behavior of copper alloys that is susceptible to stress...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005354
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract No-bake sand molds are based on curing of inorganic or organic binders with either gaseous catalysts or liquid catalysts. This article reviews the major aspects of no-bake sand bonding in terms of coremaking, molding methods, and sand processing. It discusses the points to be noted in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001229
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Pickling is the most common of several processes used to remove scale from steel surfaces. This article provides a discussion on pickling solutions, such as sulfuric and hydrochloric acid, and describes the role of inhibitors in acid pickling. It discusses the equipment and processes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... organic binder. With inorganic zinc-rich coatings, curing is harder to assess, because curing is dependent on water evaporation, hydrolysis, acid reaction, or combinations thereof. The inorganic zinc-rich coating may be hard but not be suitably cured. Depending on the type of inorganic zinc-rich coating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... coatings, namely, PVDF, polyvinyl fluoride, and polytetrafluoroethylene. It focuses on general properties, polymerization, resin types, coating formulation, technology of organic coatings, coating properties, and health and related safety considerations of PVDF. The article describes the application and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... metallic protective coatings, organic films can simultaneously resist more than one corrosive condition, such as combinations of marine atmosphere and acid fumes. Conventional paint films have good dielectric properties, which enable them to inhibit galvanic action between dissimilar metals. Conversely...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... from the bath and causes a reduction in current efficiency. Drag-in of chloride ion from acid dips must be kept very low to prevent iron buildup due to dissolution of steel equipment. Bipolarity of steel tanks or heat exchangers should be avoided. The Rochelle bath is susceptible to organic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001305
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... specifications to remove light surface contamination from machined stainless steel parts, including shop dirt, iron particles from cutting tools, and machining lubricants. Passivation treatments of stainless steel with HNO 3 or mild organic acids are useful mild cleaning operations performed after machining to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006629
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...) Stainless steels, Au, Pt Widely employed as 3:1 ratio Mineral acid + bromine or H 2 O 2 See mineral acids above Increases solvent action; speeds oxidation of organics HF Glasses, quartz Synthetic fluorine-containing resin or Pt labware required; any Si lost as SiF 4 ; significant health hazard...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001281
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... vapor degreasing, such as solvent wiping or alkaline soak cleaning, are now predominantly used for removing the major organic contaminants. The main function of this cleaning stage is to provide a chemically clean aluminum surface so that subsequent acid pickles or caustic etches can react uniformly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... application in environments that demand good corrosion resistance, such as in water, soils, acids, alkalis, saline solutions, organic compounds, sulfur compounds, and liquid metals. This article is adapted from “Corrosion of Cast Irons”, by Donald R. Stickle, Flowserve Corporation...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003145
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Sodium carbonate Slight attack … Sodium hydroxide Severe attack Increased by air Water, distilled Resistant … Water, sea Slight attack … (a) Most corrosive of common organic acids. (b) Increased with concentration and in the presence of air Tin ore generally is centered...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001310
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... of plating and organic finishing of magnesium alloys are also reviewed. The article concludes with a description of health and safety precautions to be followed during the surface treatment process. anodic treatment appearance barrel tumbling buffing chemical cleaning chemical treatment...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Table 1 Pickling conditions for copper-base materials Constituent or condition Amount or value Sulfuric acid bath Sulfuric acid (a) 15–20 vol% 35% hydrogen peroxide 3–5 vol% Water bal Temperature of solution Room temperature to 60 °C (140 °F) Immersion time 15...