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optical transmission

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
...Abstract Abstract Optical testing of plastics includes characterization of materials and analysis of optical components. This article focuses on procedures for testing various characteristics of optical components, including transmission and haze, yellowness, refractive index, birefringence...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... of transmission electron microscope to the study of fracture surfaces and related phenomena has made it possible to obtain magnifications and depths of field much greater than those possible with light (optical) microscopes. This article reviews the methods for preparing single-stage, double-stage, and extraction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... of the transmission electron microscope (TEM) is its superior resolution over optical microscopy and the SEM. The TEM provides the highest-resolution imaging, elemental analysis, and crystallographic analysis of all the techniques described. It is capable of: Imaging of features as small as several tenths...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... is into the plane of the page. Fig. 20 Polar Faraday effect microscope using a monochromatic light source and convergent beam optics. A standard transmission optical microscope is used. The Faraday effect is typically observed in this geometry, where the light and sample magnetization are perpendicular...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
..., the instrument is often referred to as a scanning transmission electron microscope. This article is divided into two major sections. The first introduces the analytical electron microscope and its basic operational characteristics, electron optics, electron beam/specimen interactions and the generation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006671
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... elements must be determined and controlled for species as common as water and iron to either minimize optical transmission losses or to produce an active fiber. Defects in glasses, such as seeds (small bubbles) and stones (small inclusions), can be analyzed by using microstructural analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006670
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... chromatography-mass spectrometry; XRD: x-ray diffraction; TEM: transmission electron microscopy; OM: optical microscopy; SEM: scanning electron microscopy; AFM: atomic force microscopy; EPMA: electron probe microanalysis; SAXS: x-ray solution scattering; AES: Auger electron spectroscopy; SIMS: secondary ion mass...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
...-resistant applications, lighting, information display, electronic processing and electronic devices, optical and ophthalmic products, and communications equipment. architectural glass biomedical glass dental glass glass fibers lamp glass optical glass specialty glasses traditional glasses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001291
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... a hardness of 40 to 100 GPa (6 to 15 × 10 6 psi), a modulus of 300 to 500 GPa (45 to 75 × 10 6 psi), and an optical transmission of 0.5 to 50 μm. The coating is amorphous, with primarily sp 3 bonding characteristic of crystalline diamond. It has a low coefficient of friction, 0.02 to 0.1, and a hydrogen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005630
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
.... Courtesy of IPG Photonics and Primes Fig. 4 Gaussian beam profile Fig. 5 Focus shift mechanism. Source: Ref 7 Fig. 6 (a) Reflective and (b) transmissive fiber optic focus assemblies with charge-coupled device camera. Courtesy of Laser Mechanisms Abstract Abstract...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006387
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... Measurement at the Atomic Level Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) Measurement Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) Measurement Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) Measurement Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) Combined with Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) Measurement Optical Microscopy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...-stage projection microscope. The object is at O and the final image at C, with an intermediate image at B. Fig. 4 The optical systems for the two common types of projection microscope. (a) Transmission illumination. (b) Reflected illumination Fig. 5 Microstructures of (a) a gray cast...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
...Resolution limits of currently available scanning electron microscopes compared with the optical microscope Table 1 Resolution limits of currently available scanning electron microscopes compared with the optical microscope Microscope Minimum resolution range,nm Maximum useful...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., and spectrometry techniques with data analysis. References References 1. Hecht E. , Optics , 3rd ed., Addison-Wesley , 1988 2. Muller D.A. , Structure and Bonding at the Atomic Scale by Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy , Nature Mater. , Vol 8 (No. 4 ), 2009 10.1038...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006474
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Display the magnitude of the resultant matrix of complex numbers representing the image acoustical holography liquid-surface acoustical holography optical holography scanning acoustical holography sleeve-bearing stock through-transmission breast imaging system ...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003230
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... of surface to be illuminated, and the transmission losses over the length of the scope. At working lengths greater than 6 m (20 ft), rigid borescopes with a lamp at the distal end provide the greatest amount of illumination over the widest area. Fiber-optic illumination in scopes with working lengths less...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003230
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... borescopes (rigid and flexible), optical sensors, and magnifying systems. The article discusses the special features of borescopes, the factors that influence the choice of a flexible or rigid borescope for use in a specific application, and some of the image sensors used in visual inspection. flexible...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006464
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... to the properties and limitations of the sample (e.g., an optical source should be used on an opaque, optically absorbent surface and not a transparent part), and care must be taken to ensure that the source does not damage the sample. Measurement applications may require sources that demand precise control...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... transmission may be used. Such materials are used in infrared lenses, as well as for short lengths of infrared fiber optics. Continuing work in the chalcogenide glass area is focused on the development of solar cells. Fluoride and halide glasses were initially examined by Vogel ( Ref 2 ) in Germany during...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... sometimes be accomplished using optical metallography. However, the second phase is sometimes so small that the resolution necessary to characterize the phase morphology exceeds the limits of the optical microscope. In these cases, transmission electron microscopy must be used. Age-hardenable...