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optical microscopy

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006684
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., measuring the amount, size, and spacing of constituents, using the light optical microscope. The discussion covers the examination of microstructures using different illumination methods and includes a comparison between light optical images and scanning electron microscopy images of microstructure...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article describes the methods and equipments involved in the preparation of specimens for examination by light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electron microprobe analysis for microindentation hardness testing, and for quantification of microstructural parameters...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Quantitative image analysis has expanded the capabilities of surface analysis significantly with the use of computer technology. This article provides an overview of the quantitative image analysis and optical microscopy. It describes the various steps involved in surface preparation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... these techniques in their rudimentary form, however, and the additional options can often double or triple the cost. This article does not discuss methods such as optical microscopy of cross-sectioned samples or the shift of interference fringes at a purposely fabricated step. The thickness of a thin...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract The application of transmission electron microscope to the study of fracture surfaces and related phenomena has made it possible to obtain magnifications and depths of field much greater than those possible with light (optical) microscopes. This article reviews the methods for...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... development of SEM technology and operating principles of basic systems of SEM. The basic systems covered include the electron optical column, signal detection and display equipment, and the vacuum system. The processes involved in the preparation of samples for observation using an SEM are described, and the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., and spectrometry techniques with data analysis. electron diffraction transmission electron microscopy crystal structure Microstructure observation is an essential approach for materials characterization, which is primarily performed by using light optical microscopy and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... used for immediate, on-site metrology and quality control at the manufacturing floor. The primary use of an SEM is to produce high-resolution images at magnifications unattainable by optical microscopy, while also providing direct topographic and compositional information. Magnifications up to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006466
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... its very high-magnification mode and is employed as a counterpart to conventional optical and electron microscopy, that is, to see fine detail at and near surfaces. The scanning acoustic microscope, like the other acoustic microscopy methods, produces image contrast, which is a function of the elastic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006633
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., or magnetic force microscopy) ( Ref 81 – 85 ), scanning near-field optical microscopy ( Ref 86 – 89 ), scanning thermal microscopy ( Ref 90 – 92 ), scanning electrochemical microscopy ( Ref 93 ), scanning Kelvin probe microscopy ( Ref 94 – 98 ), scanning chemical potential microscopy ( Ref 91...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... use inverted optical microscopes for studying cell structures. This is because inverted optical microscopes have high magnifications and can be combined with other types of microscopy, such as fluorescence microscopy. For these applications, the AFM is placed directly on the stage of the inverted...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... illustrations. The article also describes microscopic and macroscopic features of the different fracture mechanisms with illustrations with emphasis on visual and light microscopy examination. The types of fractures considered include ductile fractures, tensile-test fractures, brittle fractures, fatigue...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has unique capabilities for analyzing fracture surfaces. This article discusses the basic principles and practice of SEM, with an emphasis on its applications in fractography. The topics include an introduction to SEM instrumentation, imaging and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... chromatography/mass spectrometry; LEISS: low-energy ion-scattering spectroscopy; MFS: molecular fluorescence spectroscopy; NAA: neutron activation analysis; NMR: nuclear magnetic resonance; OM: optical metallography; RS: Raman spectroscopy; SAXS: small-angle x-ray scattering; SEM: scanning electron microscopy...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... fracture information contained in optical and scanning-electron microscope fractographs. fractography fracture surface preparation light microscopy optical fractographs scanning-electron microscope fractographs FRACTOGRAPHY is the term coined in 1944 to describe the science of studying...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006012
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... nm. In both techniques, the wave nature of electrons is used to image a specimen, just as light is used in optical microscopy. An electron gun generates a stream of highly energized electrons that are focused onto the specimen. Generally speaking, TEM, in which electrons are passed through the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
...-optical analysis Microscopy Source: Ref 33 Table 4 Factors influencing thermal analysis Test method Measured variable Factors influencing measurement (a) Dilatometry Size or volume Interference, furnace atmosphere, heating rate, thermal expansion of reference material...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... devices. The methods include light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... influence of microstructures on the failure of a material is discussed and examples of such work are given to illustrate the value of light microscopy. In addition, information on heat-treatment-related failures, fabrication-/machining-related failures, and service failures is provided, with examples...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006677
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... the essential components, and explains their function only to the extent that it helps the operator obtain the desired results. An explanation of how the components of ion optical column shape and steer the ion beam to the desired target locations is then provided. The article also reviews the many...