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optical metallography

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... Abstract Optical metallography, one of the most common materials characterization techniques, uses visible light to magnify structural features of interest. This article discusses the use of optical methods to evaluate micro and macrostructure and relate it to process conditions and material...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006684
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
.... microstructure light optical metallography light optical microscope Overview Introduction The reflected light microscope is the most commonly used tool to study the microstructure of metals, composites, ceramics, minerals, and polymers. It has long been recognized that the microstructure has...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Visual examination, using the unaided eye or a low-power optical magnifier, is typically one of the first steps in a failure investigation. This article presents the guidelines for selecting samples for scanning electron microscope examination and optical metallography and for cleaning...
Image
Published: 15 December 2019
-AES, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy; IR, infrared spectroscopy; LEISS, low-energy ion-scattering spectroscopy; NAA, neutron activation analysis; OES, optical emission spectroscopy; OM, optical metallography; RBS, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry; RS, Raman spectroscopy More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... • … … … • • … … … • • • S … … Molecular fluorescence spectroscopy D,N D,N D,N … D,N D,N D,N D,N … … D,N D,N D,N … … Neutron activation analysis N … … N N N N N … … N N N … … Nuclear magnetic resonance N D,N • D,N,S N N N N … … N N S N S Optical metallography...
Image
Published: 15 December 2019
: low-energy ion-scattering spectroscopy; MFS: molecular fluorescence spectroscopy; NAA: neutron activation analysis; NMR: nuclear magnetic resonance; OM: optical metallography; RS: Raman spectroscopy; SAXS: small-angle x-ray scattering; SEM: scanning electron microscopy; SIMS: secondary ion mass More
Image
Published: 15 December 2019
: liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry; LEISS: low-energy ion-scattering spectroscopy; MFS: molecular fluorescence spectroscopy; NAA: neutron activation analysis; NMR: nuclear magnetic resonance; OM: optical metallography; RS: Raman spectroscopy; SAXS: small-angle x-ray scattering; SEM: scanning More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Scanning electron microscope backscatter image of exemplar crankshaft fracture Optical Metallography Optical metallography is used in failure analysis to characterize the microstructure of a failed component. The photographic technique primarily employed in optical metallography is digital...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003527
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... component sectioning and metallography. Optical metallographic photography is used to document the microstructure and internal structural condition of a failed component. Component failure simulation testing, if performed, should be photographically documented in a manner similar to the documentation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006851
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... photographic documentation in failure analysis is also presented. References References 1. Vander Voort G. F. , Light Optical Metallography , Materials Characterization , Vol 10 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 2019 2. Picard Y. N. , Scanning Electron Microscopy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003720
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
.... The application of replica metallography is discussed in more detail in the article “Field Metallography Techniques” in this Volume. Microstructure Optical (light) characterization of the microstructures of metals and alloys involves the identification and measurement of phases, precipitates...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...-contrast illumination. (d) Crossed polarized light illumination. As-polished. 200× Polarized Light Polarized light ( Ref 13 , 14 , and 15 ), as used in metallography, has generally been limited to observation of certain optically anisotropic metals, such as beryllium, α-titanium, zirconium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006671
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., optical emission spectroscopy; OM, optical metallography; RBS, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry; RS, Raman spectroscopy; SEM, scanning electron microscopy; SIMS, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, SSMS, spark source mass spectrometry; TEM, transmission electron microscopy; XPS, x-ray photoelectron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... centrifugal loading can allow the cracks to progress to failure (refer to Example 5 in this article). The characteristic features of a TMF crack tend to be more evident in metallographic analysis as compared to fracture-surface examination. Optical metallography of a TMF crack in cross section typically...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006682
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... fraction, number per unit area, intersections and intercepts per unit length, grain size, and inclusion content. quantitative metallography quantitative microstructural measurement grain size Overview Introduction Many tasks performed by metallographers are done simply by visual...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... magnifications in optical metallography, requiring high optical resolution at magnifications of 1500×. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning Auger microscopy (SAM) are also employed depending on the need for more detailed microstructural characterization...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006652
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... spectrometry; LEISS: low-energy ion-scattering spectroscopy; MFS: molecular fluorescence spectroscopy; NAA: neutron activation analysis; NMR: nuclear magnetic resonance; OM: optical metallography; RS: Raman spectroscopy; SAXS: small-angle x-ray scattering; SEM: scanning electron microscopy; SIMS: secondary ion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Quantitative image analysis has expanded the capabilities of surface analysis significantly with the use of computer technology. This article provides an overview of the quantitative image analysis and optical microscopy. It describes the various steps involved in surface preparation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003749
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... sputtering vapor deposition ETCHING is used in metallography primarily to reveal the microstructure of a specimen under the optical (light) microscope. A specimen suitable for etching must include a carefully polished plane area of the material free of changes caused by surface deformation, flowed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003751
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Abstract This article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of field metallography and describes the important material characteristics and other aspects to be considered before performing any metallographic procedure. It investigates the various stages of sample preparation...