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optical fractographs

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... fracture information contained in optical and scanning-electron microscope fractographs. fractography fracture surface preparation light microscopy optical fractographs scanning-electron microscope fractographs FRACTOGRAPHY is the term coined in 1944 to describe the science of studying...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract The application of transmission electron microscope to the study of fracture surfaces and related phenomena has made it possible to obtain magnifications and depths of field much greater than those possible with light (optical) microscopes. This article reviews the methods for...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... development of SEM technology and operating principles of basic systems of SEM. The basic systems covered include the electron optical column, signal detection and display equipment, and the vacuum system. The processes involved in the preparation of samples for observation using an SEM are described, and the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001833
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... fracture surface lenses scanning light photomacrography stereomicroscopes visual examination PHOTOGRAPHY plays an important role in recording the features of a fracture. Most optical fractographs will be at magnifications of 1× and greater. Depth-of-field inadequacies usually limit the maximum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
...) and transgranular fracture (right). Fig. 6 (a) Chevrons (arrows) emanating from the fracture origin in a bolt that failed under conditions of bending overload. (b) SEM fractographs of the origin and fracture surface shown in (a) The scanning electron microscope optical column and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... diversification brought such terms as macrofractography and microfractography for distinguishing the visual and low magnification (≤25×) from the microscopic, and optical fractography and electron fractography for distinguishing between studies conducted using the light (optical) microscope and electron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... shown by Zapffe, relatively few optical fractographs, have been published by others, and microfractography did not gain general acceptance until the development of TEM replication methods in the 1950s. With the commercial introduction of the scanning electron microscope in 1965, the field of...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003058
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... useful. The techniques were first borrowed from electron microscopy, but the requirements are generally much less severe. For example, replication materials may not be required to be transparent to an electron beam, if examination is to be limited to optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the top of the fracture. In general, the light path should intersect the fracture surface perpendicular to the crack front for a progressive fracture. Single-side fiber optic lighting results in a photograph that clearly reveals the fractographic features present. When using single-side lighting, the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... obtained, although etching must be somewhat heavier than usual, and certain microstructures, for example, martensite, are difficult to examine with optical replicas. Figure 16 shows the microstructure of a steel reinforcing bar using replicating tape. This shows a ferrite-pearlite microstructure where...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... (including x-rays), design history files, and instructions for use. Fractographic investigation can provide significant information about the cause of fracture; the magnitude, type, and direction of stresses; the presence of any defects, flaws, or embrittlement; as well as the environment...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... coverage on specific types of fracture (processes such as ductile and brittle fracture, fatigue, creep, and complex environmentally assisted cracking from stress-corrosion cracking and hydrogen embrittlement) can be found in other articles in this Volume. Articles on the fractographic appearances of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... considerably during the past few years ( Ref 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 ). The main thrust has been directed toward ways to augment the two-dimensional information in the scanning electron microscope fractograph. Elevation information is needed in order to quantify the true magnitudes of features in the nonplanar...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... specimen. (a) Optical view at base of notch. (b) Higher-magnification electron fractograph. Sample was sputter coated with platinum for scanning electron microscopy examination. Because each striation corresponds to one loading cycle, the fatigue crack growth rate can be estimated from the spacing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... (SEM) fractographs without corrections (see Example 5 ). Other examples of the application of these new quantitative methods are given in this article for striation spacings ( Example 1 ), precision matching ( Example 2 ), crack path tortuosity ( Example 4 ), and the use of statistical methods as...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... single crystals were resolvable and photographed, and they implied evidence of slip deformation. Similarly, when cleavage fracture occurred, the resulting fracture surface was sufficiently smooth that optical light provided high light reflectivity from the crystal scaled facets. That view of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... analysis is performed, especially in a process that can severely segregate constituents, such as castings or forms of compositionally gradient metallic additive manufactured parts. Often in failure analysis, the fractographic features of a part need to be analyzed at the micron scale in an SEM...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... discs failed prematurely ( Fig. 3 ) below the design pressure in a brittle manner. Fractographic examination using SEM indicated that failure occurred intergranularly from the cylinder side. Energy-dispersive spectroscopy analysis (EDSA) indicated the presence of mercury on the fracture surface, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... occurred in an implant with a recrystallized microstructure with many annealing twins and exhibited tire tracks upon fractographic analysis. Three other implants (two Vitallium and one stainless steel) had not failed, but were cracked. In another early study of biomaterials made of cobalt-base alloys that...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... during shipping or are found cracked at some point during the assembly process. Grain boundaries of steel are particularly sensitive to this type of atomic bond weakening. The enhanced plastic flow theory is based on fractographic evidence, where the grain facets of intergranular fracture after...