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optical components

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract Optical testing of plastics includes characterization of materials and analysis of optical components. This article focuses on procedures for testing various characteristics of optical components, including transmission and haze, yellowness, refractive index, birefringence, as well as...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005680
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
...-intensity beam to a single spot of high energy density ( Ref 13 , 16 ). A laser system consists of three main components: an amplifying medium, a means of exciting the medium to its amplifying state or pump source, and an optical resonator ( Ref 10 ). The active medium is comprised of materials that, when...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006640
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
.... All analytical instruments have drift of the analytical signals with time; in OES spectrometers the most common cause is contamination and degradation of optical components (windows, lenses, mirrors). The alignment of optical components also may shift slightly with ambient temperature changes, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Measuring the thickness of thin films can be accomplished in many ways. This article focuses on the optical method of single-wavelength ellipsometry, two multiple-wavelength methods of reflectometry and spectroscopic ellipsometry for measuring the thickness of thin films. The general...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006647
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... illustrating the various components constituting the modern inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) system. The system includes the sample-introduction system, the ICP-OES torch and argon gas supplies, the radio-frequency (RF) generator and associated electronics, the spectrometer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006677
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... the essential components, and explains their function only to the extent that it helps the operator obtain the desired results. An explanation of how the components of ion optical column shape and steer the ion beam to the desired target locations is then provided. The article also reviews the many...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003140
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Titanium and its alloys are used in various applications owing to its high strength, stiffness, good toughness, low density, and good corrosion resistance. This article discusses the applications of titanium and titanium alloys in gas turbine engine components, aerospace pressure...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003086
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Material properties are the link between the basic structure and composition of the material and the service performance of a part or component. This article describes the most significant properties that must be considered when choosing a metal for a given application, namely physical...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003061
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract Structural applications for advanced ceramics include mineral processing equipment, machine tools, wear components, heat exchangers, automotive products, aerospace components, and medical products. This article begins with an overview of the wear-resistant applications and the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... EDS in more detail. The guidelines useful for selecting samples for optical metallography are: Compare subject microstructure with an exemplar, either a section of the failed component deemed undamaged or an entirely new part. If appropriate, section through the fracture-initiation site...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... microscope as a tool for examining surfaces are improvements in resolution and depth of field. The components of a typical SEM include an electron-optics column, specimen chamber, support system, and control and imaging system. The electron beam is generated at an electron gun and accelerated toward the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... covers the operating principles, applications, advantages, and disadvantages of optical emission spectroscopy (OES), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), X-ray spectroscopy, and ion chromatography (IC). In addition, information on combustion analysis and inert gas fusion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... each of the macrophotographs taken. Further analysis may require sectioning for microstructural examination. Optical metallographic photography is used to document the microstructure and internal structural conditions of a failed component. Nondestructive inspection may be required to document...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Rolling-contact fatigue (RCF) is a common failure mode in components subjected to rolling or rolling-sliding contact. This article provides a basic understanding of RCF and a broad overview of materials and manufacturing techniques commonly used in industry to improve component life. A...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... failed component. Fig. 10 Pitting from the outside of a copper tube. This is shown under oblique lighting set on the stage of a metallograph. The inside of the tube is also illuminated, using fiber optic lighting to demonstrate the perforation of the wall. The use of the scanning electron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Fatigue failure of engineering components and structures results from progressive fracture caused by cyclic or fluctuating loads. Fatigue is an important potential cause of mechanical failure, because most engineering components or structures are or can be subjected to cyclic loads...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... hydrogen damage in all the major commercial alloy systems. It covers the broader topic of hydrogen damage, which can be quite complex and technical in nature. The article focuses on failure analysis where hydrogen embrittlement of a steel component is suspected. It provides practical advice for the failure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Engineering component and structure failures manifest through many mechanisms but are most often associated with fracture in one or more forms. This article introduces the subject of fractography and aspects of how it is used in failure analysis. The basic types of fracture processes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... Abstract This article discusses the composition of major components of dental composite resins. The components include organic resin matrix, filler, coupling agents, and initiator-accelerator systems. The article provides a description of three steps in adhesive systems, namely, etching...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003060
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... in detailed design procedure. The article provides information on the proof testing of ceramics, and presents a short note on public domain software that helps determine the reliability of a loaded ceramic component. The article concludes with several design scenarios for gas turbine components...