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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006640
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article is a detailed account of optical emission spectroscopy (OES) for elemental analysis. It begins with a discussion on the historical background of OES and development trends in OES methods. This is followed by a description of the general principles and optical systems of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006647
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article provides a clear but nonexhaustive description of the general principle of atomic emission, with a particular focus on instrumentation, and summarizes the main characteristics of the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer technique. Basic atomic theory as...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006684
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., measuring the amount, size, and spacing of constituents, using the light optical microscope. The discussion covers the examination of microstructures using different illumination methods and includes a comparison between light optical images and scanning electron microscopy images of microstructure...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract Optical testing of plastics includes characterization of materials and analysis of optical components. This article focuses on procedures for testing various characteristics of optical components, including transmission and haze, yellowness, refractive index, birefringence, as well as...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Measuring the thickness of thin films can be accomplished in many ways. This article focuses on the optical method of single-wavelength ellipsometry, two multiple-wavelength methods of reflectometry and spectroscopic ellipsometry for measuring the thickness of thin films. The general...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article briefly discusses popular techniques for metals characterization. It begins with a description of the most common techniques for determining chemical composition of metals, namely X-ray fluorescence, optical emission spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma optical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Visual examination, using the unaided eye or a low-power optical magnifier, is typically one of the first steps in a failure investigation. This article presents the guidelines for selecting samples for scanning electron microscope examination and optical metallography and for cleaning...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... covers the operating principles, applications, advantages, and disadvantages of optical emission spectroscopy (OES), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), X-ray spectroscopy, and ion chromatography (IC). In addition, information on combustion analysis and inert gas fusion...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... applications, lighting, information display, electronic processing and electronic devices, optical and ophthalmic products, and communications equipment. architectural glass biomedical glass dental glass glass fibers lamp glass optical glass specialty glasses traditional glasses GLASS in its...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006677
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... the essential components, and explains their function only to the extent that it helps the operator obtain the desired results. An explanation of how the components of ion optical column shape and steer the ion beam to the desired target locations is then provided. The article also reviews the many...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005925
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... control systems, including contact sensors, noncontact sensors, controllers, energy-flow regulators, measurement instruments, and set-point programmers. Common contact sensors include temperature scales, thermocouples, and resistance temperature detectors, whereas optical pyrometers and on-line radiation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract The application of transmission electron microscope to the study of fracture surfaces and related phenomena has made it possible to obtain magnifications and depths of field much greater than those possible with light (optical) microscopes. This article reviews the methods for...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... ceramics include electronic ceramics, optical ceramics, magnetic ceramics, and structural ceramics. advanced ceramics advanced glasses glass-ceramics structural ceramics traditional ceramics traditional glasses CERAMICS AND GLASSES can be broadly defined as inorganic nonmetallic materials...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... gives a detailed account of production, properties and application of fiberglass, optical fibers, glass spheres and ceramic glasses, and describes the forms, classification, compositions and properties of glass/metal and glass-ceramic/metal seals. fiberglass forming glass melting glass spheres...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003066
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract This article describes the chemical composition, physical properties, thermal properties, mechanical properties, electrical properties, optical properties, magnetic properties, and chemical properties of glasses, glass-matrix composites, and glass-ceramics. chemical properties...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001316
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract This article focuses on the ceramic coatings for ceramic and glass substrates. It describes the role of oxides in glazes and discusses the optical and appearance properties of various types of glazes, such as leadless glazes, lead-containing glazes, opaque glazes, and satin and matte...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Quantitative image analysis has expanded the capabilities of surface analysis significantly with the use of computer technology. This article provides an overview of the quantitative image analysis and optical microscopy. It describes the various steps involved in surface preparation...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003140
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... vessels, optic-system support structures, prosthetic devices, and applications requiring corrosion resistance and high strength. It explains the effects of alloying elements in titanium alloys as they play an important role in controlling the microstructure and properties and describes the secondary...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003240
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Holography is basically a two-step process for creating a whole three dimensional image of a diffusely reflecting object having some arbitrary shape. This article discusses the advantages, disadvantages and applications of using the optical holography method in nondestructive...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... conductivity. The article describes structural, instrument, and optical grade beryllium and the corresponding compositional ranges. It also discusses processing and product forms as well as factors affecting corrosion resistance. The article concludes with a short note on health and safety considerations when...