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operating circulating system

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... metal coolants is described. Some information on safety precautions for handling liquid metals, operating circulating systems, dealing with fire and spillage, and cleaning contaminated components, are also provided. liquid-metal corrosion liquid-metal system liquid-vapor metal coolants safety...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005350
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... the hearth and one over the hold chamber. Two separately controlled burner systems are required for optimal operation. High metal melt loss (possibly 7 to 12%) can result due to melting in the atmosphere, which creates a very high oxidation rate at these temperatures (700 to 760 °C, or 1300 to 1400 °F...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003412
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
.... It presents a discussion on the major elements of an autoclave system, namely, pressure vessel, gas stream heating and circulation sources, gas stream pressurizing systems, loading systems, and vacuum systems. The article describes a computerized approach to the simultaneous control of materials reaction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... at start-up. In general, the chemical cleaning operation consists of: Connecting cleaning system Leak testing of the liquid circulation path, including contractor fittings and temporary piping Establishment of circulation rate and temperature Blending in of chemicals Circulation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004102
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... “safety-related,” “essential,” or “emergency cooling.” The majority of the service water systems in nuclear plants do not fall into this category and are labeled “nonsafety-related” or “nonessential,” but their unavailability may challenge continued operation of the plant. Corrosion mechanisms...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006407
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
..., a circulating fluid system may cool the bearing reducing the oxygen rate of the lubricant and will limit the reduction in viscosity. Fluid Lubrication for Rolling Bearings For most applications that do not involve operating conditions of extremely high temperatures, good-quality refined mineral oils...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005196
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... and water cooling systems for induction furnaces. Furnace operators can increase the power supply utilization by the use of mechanical skimmers. The article describes the various lining materials used in induction furnaces, namely, silica, alumina, and magnesia. The crucible wall scrapers, ramming mixes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4F
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v4F.a0007007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-450-5
...-flow characteristics of a draft-tube operation and the development of system resistance curves for the basic sizing of a suitable draft tube is covered extensively by Totten and Lally. Draft tubes are typically used for larger (60,000 USG and larger) permanently or fixed mounted top-entering...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005352
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... system to circulate the furnace a viable option. In terms of operation, an EM pump is connected via insulated tubes to the furnace charge chamber and an external refractory-lined charge well, where a unique internal bowl shape develops a vortex with, low-turbulence scrap submergence (LOTUSS™...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005992
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Abstract Heating time and holding time refer, respectively, to the time required to bring a part to temperature and the time a part is held at the required heat-treatment temperature. This article provides information on heating times and holding times with different types of furnace systems...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004118
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... to the power transmission cable operator. To cathodically protect a pipe-type cable, the impressed current method of cathodic protection is used. As is the case with any other buried or submerged metallic structure, it is necessary to keep its direct current (dc) potential more negative (approximately −0.5...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004164
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
.... To provide adequate engine cooling for a typical passenger car, the pump may have to circulate as much as 28,000 L (7397 gal) per hour. Fan Belt The fan belt is extremely important to the operation of the vehicle cooling system because it drives both the fan and coolant pump. Thermostat...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... or alloy tubes. Heaters can be controlled either by contactor (on-off control) or by silicon-controlled rectifier. The major drawback of electrically heating the autoclave is the operating and demand cost, which can be prohibitive for large autoclave systems. Gas Circulation Gas circulation within...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... where a small number of holes are drilled or tapped on a machine that is not equipped with a coolant system. When two different operations are performed on the same machine, manual application can be used in conjunction with the flood cooling system of the machine. The flood cooling can be used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001324
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... widespread acceptance. However, many laws have been put into place to regulate or restrict the use of traditional vapor degreasing, and many new regulations are pending. As these laws come into effect, it becomes increasingly more expensive to operate and maintain these systems and to dispose of the waste...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005957
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... of these parts to a minimum. The furnaces used in the heat treating process can be classified in several different ways: mode of operation, application, level of mechanization, type of heating method, materials-handling system, type of energy used, and type of hearth. One of the popular methods...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... by the hot cleaner. For a spray system, additional equipment includes a spray pump, riser, nozzles, and a spray zone enclosure. Periodically, the cleaning tank and spray equipment must be cleaned in order to remove the scale and contaminants that build up during normal operations. The cleaning method...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005927
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... can be added into the spraying media. The blasting can be operated by cycling on and off, instead of continuous spraying. These techniques can be incorporated into mechanical handling systems, and all can clean as well as provide a suitable finish for subsequent operations. For a plant processing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... by conventional aqueous pretreatment procedures. Nonelectrolytic processes can be used to deposit binary or ternary alloy coatings. The chemistries of ternary alloy plating can be very complex and involve several chelation and secondary reactions. The typical ternary system operates by having the primary...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003587
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
.... A thermal convection loop is shown in Fig. 1 . Fig. 1 Natural circulation loop and salt sampler Purification Molten salts, whether used for experimental purposes or in actual systems, must be kept free of contaminants. Maintaining purity, which involves initial makeup, transfer...