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open-die forging

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003978
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...Abstract Abstract Open-die forging can be distinguished from most other types of deformation processes in that it provides discontinuous material flow as opposed to continuous flow. This article describes the equipment and auxiliary tools used in open-die forging. It discusses the production...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... some common workability tests and illustrates their application in practical forging situations. Workability tests for open-die forging of cast structures, hot and cold open-die forging of recrystallized structures, fracture-controlled defect formation, establishing effects of process variables...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...Abstract Abstract Forging machines use a wide variety of hammers, presses, and dies to produce products with the desired shape, size, and geometry. This article discusses the major types of hammers (gravity-drop, power-drop, high speed, and open-die forging), and presses (mechanical, hydraulic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006493
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
...Abstract Abstract This article examines aluminum forging processes, including open-die, closed-die, upset, roll, orbital, spin, and mandrel forging, and compares and contrasts their capabilities and the associated design requirements for forged parts. It discusses the effect of key process...
Book Chapter

By H.W. Sizek
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003984
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...Abstract Abstract Radial forging is a process performed with four dies arranged in one plane that can act on a piece simultaneously. This article explains the types of radial forgings and describes the advantages and disadvantages of radial forging over open-die cogging/forging. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
...-type, conventional, and precision forgings Abstract Abstract Forgings are classified in various ways, beginning with the general classifications open die and closed die. They are also classified according to how they are made; such as hammer upset forgings, ring-rolled forgings, and multiple...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003996
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... for the forging of aluminum alloys Forging process/equipment Die temperature °C °F Open-die forging Ring rolling 95–205 200–400 Mandrel forging 95–205 200–400 Closed-die forging Hammers 95–150 200–300 Upsetters 150–260 300–500 Mechanical presses 150–260 300–500...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003998
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... commonly forged using homogenized and hot extruded billets. Forging Equipment Machines Hydraulic presses or slow-action mechanical presses are the most commonly used machines for the open-die and closed-die forging of magnesium alloys. As mentioned previously, the flow behavior (e.g., resistance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004000
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... be finish forged at subtransus temperatures. (b) These are recommended metal temperature ranges for conventional α-β, or β forging processes for alloys for which the latter techniques are reported to have been employed. The lower limit of the forging temperature range is established for open-die forging...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001032
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... (microalloyed) steels and the various parts of the rolling operation. The article summarizes some of the common tests for determining formability in open-die and closed-die forgings. References References 1. Sabroff A.M. , Boulger F.W. , and Henning H.J. , Forging Materials...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003992
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... and compositions; the most difficult alloys to forge are those with the greatest strength at elevated temperatures. Forging Methods Open-die, closed-die, upset, and roll forging and ring rolling are among the methods used to forge stainless steel. As in the forging of other metals, two of these methods...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004038
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... engine loads to other structural elements. Weight of the finished fitting was only 35 kg (77 lb); weight of the forging was 135 kg (300 lb). (An open-die prototype forging weighed 360 kg, or 800 lb.) In large part, the strength and rigidity achieved in this fitting are the result of judicious design...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003999
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... quantity shafts and seamless rings are made by open-die forging. Seamless rings and cases are also produced by ring rolling. Some nickel-base alloys are also produced into mill products, such as plates, sheets, and rods, that are further processed into components by fabrication. Heating for Forging...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003993
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... of methods, and two or more of these methods are often used in sequence. Forged superalloy components are produced by: Die forging (open-die or closed-die) Upsetting Extrusion forging Roll forging Swaging (or versions using proprietary rotary forging machines) Ring rolling Which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., or flat initially produced from ingots or, in some cases, made from the product of a continuous casting operation. Primary deformation processes, such as hot rolling, extrusion, and open-die forging, are then used for converting the cast structure to a fine-grained wrought structure while reducing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003971
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Hobbing Isothermal forging Nosing Open-die forging Rotary (orbital) forging Precision forging Metal powder forging Radial forging Upsetting Incremental forging Rolling Sheet rolling Shape rolling Tube rolling Ring rolling Rotary tube piercing Gear rolling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003989
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... An economical technique to convert a cast structure to a wrought structure is through the use of open-die forging and furnace treatments, collectively known as cogging. Traditionally, the forging elements of cogging have been carried out by using a two-die forge, but cogging can also include work done...
Book Chapter

By Robert Bolin
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003982
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... (c) Originally requested shape. Blank cross-sectional area is approximately twice that of a rolled ring. When it is found that a rectangular or open-die blank will not yield the desired contour, blank preforming must be used. Typically, the starting point for a new contour shape (from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003994
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... and Molybdenum Alloys The forging behavior of molybdenum and molybdenum alloys depends on the process used to manufacture the billet. Pressed-and-sintered billets can be forged directly. Large pressed-and-sintered billets are open-die forged or extruded before closed-die forging. Arc cast or electron-beam...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.9781627081856
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6