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open-die forging

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003978
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract Open-die forging can be distinguished from most other types of deformation processes in that it provides discontinuous material flow as opposed to continuous flow. This article describes the equipment and auxiliary tools used in open-die forging. It discusses the production...
Image
Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 1 Three types of die sets used for open-die forging. (a) Flat die. (b) Swage die. (c) V-die More
Image
Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 1 Typical dies and punches used in open-die forging. (a) Die mounted with dovetail and key. (b) Flange-mounted die. (c) Swages for producing smooth round and hexagonal bars. (d) V-die. (e) Combination die (bar die). (f) Single loose die with flat top for producing hexagonal bars. (g More
Image
Published: 01 December 1998
Fig. 16 Four types of die sets commonly used in open-die forging More
Image
Published: 01 December 1998
Fig. 5 Double-frame power hammer used for open-die forging More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... workability tests and illustrates their application in practical forging situations. Workability tests for open-die forging of cast structures, hot and cold open-die forging of recrystallized structures, fracture-controlled defect formation, establishing effects of process variables and secondary tensile...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Forging machines use a wide variety of hammers, presses, and dies to produce products with the desired shape, size, and geometry. This article discusses the major types of hammers (gravity-drop, power-drop, high speed, and open-die forging), and presses (mechanical, hydraulic, screw...
Image
Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 30 Open-die and conventional turbine disk forgings of René 41. The conventional forging was designed with a rim that served to provide test coupons. See Example 7 . Dimensions in figure given in inches Item Conventional forging Material René 41 (AMS 5713) (a) (b More
Book Chapter

By H.W. Sizek
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003984
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract Radial forging is a process performed with four dies arranged in one plane that can act on a piece simultaneously. This article explains the types of radial forgings and describes the advantages and disadvantages of radial forging over open-die cogging/forging. The article discusses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006493
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... Abstract This article examines aluminum forging processes, including open-die, closed-die, upset, roll, orbital, spin, and mandrel forging, and compares and contrasts their capabilities and the associated design requirements for forged parts. It discusses the effect of key process variables...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003996
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Forging process/equipment Die temperature °C °F Open-die forging Ring rolling 95–205 200–400 Mandrel forging 95–205 200–400 Closed-die forging Hammers 95–150 200–300 Upsetters 150–260 300–500 Mechanical presses 150–260 300–500 Screw presses 150–260 300–500...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003998
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... commonly forged using homogenized and hot extruded billets. Forging Equipment Machines Hydraulic presses or slow-action mechanical presses are the most commonly used machines for the open-die and closed-die forging of magnesium alloys. As mentioned previously, the flow behavior (e.g., resistance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004000
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... be finish forged at subtransus temperatures. (b) These are recommended metal temperature ranges for conventional α-β, or β forging processes for alloys for which the latter techniques are reported to have been employed. The lower limit of the forging temperature range is established for open-die forging...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003992
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...; the most difficult alloys to forge are those with the greatest strength at elevated temperatures. Forging Methods Open-die, closed-die, upset, and roll forging and ring rolling are among the methods used to forge stainless steel. As in the forging of other metals, two of these methods are sometimes...
Image
Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 14 Open-die and conventional reduction gear carrier forgings. See Example 2. Dimensions given in inches More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004038
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... engine loads to other structural elements. Weight of the finished fitting was only 35 kg (77 lb); weight of the forging was 135 kg (300 lb). (An open-die prototype forging weighed 360 kg, or 800 lb.) In large part, the strength and rigidity achieved in this fitting are the result of judicious design...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... Abstract Forgings are classified in various ways, beginning with the general classifications open die and closed die. They are also classified according to how they are made; such as hammer upset forgings, ring-rolled forgings, and multiple-ram press forgings; and in terms of the close...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003999
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... quantity shafts and seamless rings are made by open-die forging. Seamless rings and cases are also produced by ring rolling. Some nickel-base alloys are also produced into mill products, such as plates, sheets, and rods, that are further processed into components by fabrication. Heating for Forging...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003993
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... of methods, and two or more of these methods are often used in sequence. Forged superalloy components are produced by: Die forging (open-die or closed-die) Upsetting Extrusion forging Roll forging Swaging (or versions using proprietary rotary forging machines) Ring rolling Which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003989
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... An economical technique to convert a cast structure to a wrought structure is through the use of open-die forging and furnace treatments, collectively known as cogging. Traditionally, the forging elements of cogging have been carried out by using a two-die forge, but cogging can also include work done...