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open end wrench

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003980
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... was originally restricted to the single-blow heading of parts such as bolts, current machines and tooling permit the use of multiple-pass dies that can produce relatively complex shapes. The process is widely used for producing finished forgings ranging in complexity from simple bolts or flanged shafts to wrench...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003975
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... of the rod and then worked in an edger to proportion the ends of the boss and crank shapes ( Fig. 2a ). The edger impression may be open at the side of the die block, as in Fig. 2(a) , or confined, as in Fig. 2(b) . An edger is sometimes used in combination with a bender in a single die impression...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
..., and oil quenching. Excessive temperatures should be avoided; in many steels, the higher austenitizing temperatures promote the retention of austenite. Many common hand tools, such as pliers, open-end wrenches, screwdrivers, and a few edged tools (for example, tin snips and brush knives) are made from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002427
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... smooth operation with the twist of the hand. On the left side of the picture is a modern strap wrench-style opener in which both ends of the strap are retracted into the handle in a smooth continuous action to accomplish “adjust/jaw 1/jaw 2” and then “grip/lid.” If the only tool in the engineer's toolbox...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... in the standard for washers and rivets. This article concentrates on the portions applicable to threaded fasteners. Test Methods for Externally Threaded Fasteners Product Hardness The hardness of fasteners and studs can be determined on the ends, wrench flats, or unthreaded shanks after removal of any...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4F
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04F.a0007011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-450-5
... be applied in IH using liquid media: conventional immersion quenching, open spray quenching, flood quenching, and submerged quench or submerged spray quench. It also focuses on four primary methods of IH: scan hardening, progressive hardening, single-shot hardening, and static hardening. flood...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Corrective Measures To minimize the possibility of a recurrence of this type of failure, the wheel nuts were tightened with an air-impact wrench to a torque of 610 to 678 J (450 to 500 ft · lb) dry. All wheel studs were checked at normal maintenance periods to ensure uniform and proper loading...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003330
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
.... It provides information on the specimen preparation, instrumentation, and procedures for various mechanical test methods of fiber-reinforced composites. These include the compression test, flexure test, shear test, open hole tension test, and compression after impact test. The article describes three distinct...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
.... 7 Button-on-block galling test arrangement using a tension test machine. Source: Ref 16 Once loaded, the button is rotated slowly one revolution (360°) using either an open-end wrench, an adjustable wrench, or some other special tool for rotating by hand. A mechanized system may also...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Forging machines use a wide variety of hammers, presses, and dies to produce products with the desired shape, size, and geometry. This article discusses the major types of hammers (gravity-drop, power-drop, high speed, and open-die forging), and presses (mechanical, hydraulic, screw...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006805
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... with an air-impact wrench to a torque of 610 to 678 N · m (450 to 500 lbf · ft) dry. All wheel studs were checked at normal maintenance periods to ensure uniform and proper loading, and no further failures occurred. The bolt-thread root immediately adjacent to the edge of the nut on the washer side...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... systems. It is important to use the correct-sized nonsparking wrench to connect the regulator to the cylinder valve outlet; never force or overtighten a connection. When connecting oxygen and fuel-gas cylinders, pressure-reducing regulators, and flow meters, the connecting nuts should be drawn up tight...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001485
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... h at 176 °C (300 °F). Wet electrodes may shatter. Torches Oxygen should never be used in an air carbon-arc torch. Neither the torch nor the electrode should ever be immersed in water. All electrical connections should be wrench tight before the torches are used. Electrical Power...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002368
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
..., rather than fatigue, may be the controlling failure mode. Bolt preloading is discussed in detail in Ref 1 and 2 . Tightening of Bolts The determination of the actual preload in a given bolt-nut combination is difficult. Tightening with a torque wrench is the simplest but is likely...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... can be straightened. One end of the section is held in a vise or in a special fixture, while the other end is twisted with a wrench or special handle. When the twist is corrected, the bar can be straightened to remove camber and bow. Manual Peening Straightening of a workpiece by peening...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... lengths from mill stock. They are used throughout the fabricating industry. Two general types are available—open end ( Fig. 8 ) and closed end. The open-end shear is built on a C-frame with one end open and unsupported. Open-end shears are either single end, for one operator, or double end, for two...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005863
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... it increases the strength at the surface where it is needed the most. Fig. 2 Examples of induction-hardened components. (a) Gear and gearlike components. (b) Wrench jaws. (c) Camshafts. (d) Crankshaft. (e) Machine component. Courtesy of Inductoheat, Inc. In addition, surface hardening normally...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... thickness. Open forward extrusions should be a maximum of 25% reduction for aluminum, 35% for carbon steels, and 40% for alloy steel such as 4140. Trapped forward extrusion can have reductions as high as 70 to 75%. Multiple forward extrusion should have the highest reduction first, due to the removal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... for disassembly, panel removal, repair, and easier end-of-life recycling. Generally speaking, easy method for semiskilled workers using relatively simple tools Little or no surface preparation required No fumes or heat generation, low noise emission, and low energy consumption Low heat input usually...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005176
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... switch is pressed, and the torch is moved along the cut line as soon as the arc is established. At the end of the cut, the arc is automatically extinguished, and the control opens the contactor and closes the gas valves. The operator can extinguish the arc at any time by moving the torch away from...