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open die forgings

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003978
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract Open-die forging can be distinguished from most other types of deformation processes in that it provides discontinuous material flow as opposed to continuous flow. This article describes the equipment and auxiliary tools used in open-die forging. It discusses the production and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... A number of test techniques have been developed for gaging forgeability depending on alloy type, microstructure, die geometry, and process variables. This article summarizes some common workability tests and illustrates their application in practical forging situations. Workability tests for open...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Forging machines use a wide variety of hammers, presses, and dies to produce products with the desired shape, size, and geometry. This article discusses the major types of hammers (gravity-drop, power-drop, high speed, and open-die forging), and presses (mechanical, hydraulic, screw...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... Abstract Forgings are classified in various ways, beginning with the general classifications open die and closed die. They are also classified according to how they are made; such as hammer upset forgings, ring-rolled forgings, and multiple-ram press forgings; and in terms of the close-to...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003097
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... Forgings are classified in several ways, beginning with the general classifications “open-die” and “closed-die.” They are also classified in terms of the “close-to-finish” factor, or the amount of stock (cover) that must be removed from the forging by machining to satisfy the dimensional and detail...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006493
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... illustrates the relative forgeability of ten aluminum alloys that constitute the majority of aluminum alloy forging production. The article explains the various types of forgings, including open-die, closed-die, upset, roll, orbital, spin, and mandrel forging. It describes forging equipment, including hammers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003979
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...) End A typical load-versus-stroke curve for a closed-die forging is shown in Fig. 8 . Loads are relatively low until the more difficult details are partly filled and the metal reaches the flash opening ( Fig. 7 ). This stage corresponds to point P 1 in Fig. 8 . For successful forging, two...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003985
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... accommodated over isothermal processing. However, open-die arrangements make it difficult to deploy inert or protective environments, and they restrict the ability to incorporate higher die temperatures. Hot-die forging requires that the die temperature be maintained consistently within the die and from part...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003975
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... “Forging Processes” in this Volume. Most open-die forgings are produced in a pair of flat dies—one attached to the hammer or to the press ram and the other to the anvil. Swage (semicircular) dies and V-dies are also commonly used. These...
Book Chapter

By H.W. Sizek
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003984
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract Radial forging is a process performed with four dies arranged in one plane that can act on a piece simultaneously. This article explains the types of radial forgings and describes the advantages and disadvantages of radial forging over open-die cogging/forging. The article discusses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... reduction in area (a) , % Expected alloy behavior under normal hot reductions in open-die forging or rolling Remarks regarding alloy hot working practice <30 Poor hot workability, abundant cracks Preferably not rolled or open-die forged; extrusion may be feasible; rolling or forging should be...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003976
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... Recommendations on the selection of the materials for hot forging, hot extrusion, cold heading, and cold extrusion are presented. The article discusses the methods of characterizing abrasive wear and factors affecting abrasive wear. It discusses various die coatings and surface treatments used to extend the lives...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006283
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... property combinations. An example of microstructural modification is hot forging at temperatures within the α/β zone to produce fine equiaxed α coexisting with transformed acicular α from original β. Slightly lower strength can be improved by varying the solution heat treatment, cooling rate, and aging...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005186
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... alloys were used for die casting as early as 1907 but were not competitive until Price & Anderson developed the Zamak die casting alloy in 1929. In 1851, James Bogardus's factory in Chicago, which was constructed with cast iron supports, opened the way for what many art historians considered to be...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003996
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...) used for aluminum precision forgings. Source: Ref 7 Fig. 14 Multipiece (wrap) die system. (a) During forging. (b) After forging, the die system opens to allow extraction of the completed part Fig. 16 Cost comparison for the manufacture of an aluminum alloy 7075-T73 component...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004000
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... ranges for conventional α-β, or β forging processes for alloys for which the latter techniques are reported to have been employed. The lower limit of the forging temperature range is established for open-die forging operations in which reheating is recommended. (c) Alloys for which there are several...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004032
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Table 1 Lubricant systems for steel cold forging Process Deformation Lubrication Upsetting Light None Mi+EP+FA Severe Ph+SP Ironing and open-die extrusion Light Ph+Mi+EP+FA Severe Ph+SP Extrusion Light Ph+Mi+EP+FA Severe Ph+SP Ph+MoS 2 Ph+MoS 2 +SP Mi...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003992
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... difficult alloys to forge are those with the greatest strength at elevated temperatures. Open-die, closed-die, upset, and roll forging and ring rolling are among the methods used to forge stainless steel. As in the forging of other metals, two of these methods are...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003184
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... CHARACTERISTICS and forging-related properties of commonly forged families of metals and alloys are reviewed in this article. Except for open-die forging, materials best suited for forging require low strength (or flow stress) to reduce pressures in the dies. This requirement is most important for complex parts...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... first die impression (f) that would produce the shape (d). This would be transferred to the next die (c) that would produce the final part (a). Fig. 67 Example of the use of the TEUBA software for determining forging preforms by reverse simulation. Source: Ref 76 Simulation of metal flow...