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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004032
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract This article lists functions of lubricants common to the majority of applications and processes. It discusses the lubricant candidates widely used in forging: conversion coatings with soaps (stearate compounds) and molybdenum disulfide for cold forging; oil-based thick, film oil or...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... boundaries between which the lubricant must operate. These surfaces are complex. The chemistry of the surface is not the same as the bulk chemistry of the sheet or tools. The lubricant interacts with an oxide layer of varying complexity; various contaminants may infiltrate the oxide layer (such as oils...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... flooding the work with sulfochlorinated oil. Because the major axis of a heading machine is usually horizontal, there is less danger of entrapping lubricant than when extruding in a vertical press. The shape of the part is usually the primary factor that determines the procedure used for extrusion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006016
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... installation of the protective coating/lining system. Prior to beginning surface-preparation operations, many specifications will require a presurface-preparation inspection to verify the correction of fabrication defects and removal of surface contamination such as grease, oil, cutting compounds, lubricants...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., advantages and limitations of cutting and grinding fluids, such as cutting oils, water-miscible fluids, gaseous fluids, pastes, and solid lubricants along with their subtypes. It discusses the factors considered during the selection of cutting fluid, focusing on machinability (or grindability) of the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003012
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... flexibility than the hydrocarbon oils used as softeners. Fatty acids and their salts (e.g., stearic acid and zinc stearate) act as both plasticizers and lubricants, because they reduce friction between the polymer and the processing equipment. Resins such as aliphatic resins and polynuclear aromatic...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003030
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... of lubrication (with either water or oil) is also shown. Table 3 Kinetic coefficients of friction (dry and lubricated) and relative abrasion resistance for selected polymeric materials Resin (a) Kinetic coefficient of friction Relative abrasion resistance Dry Water Oil UHMWPE...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003104
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... internal combustion engine. Proper maintenance and design of filter equipment are essential controls, Prevention of air leaks between filters and the engine is also imperative. Lubricating oil contaminated with dirt is a less frequent problem, but design and maintenance of oil filters and seals are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004006
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
..., or 15 in./s), which make these units desirable for the extrusion of steel. Water is also a nonflammable hydraulic medium, an important consideration in the extrusion of very hot billets. Figures 8 and 9 show modern direct-drive oil-hydraulic presses for hot extrusion. Figure 8 is of a direct...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...) Viscosity (200 to 1000 SUS) is influenced by base oil or wax, degree of chlorination, and additions of mineral oil. (k) Solid lubricant applied from dispersions in oil, solvent or water. (l) For hot forming applications only Stainless steels are press formed with the same kind of equipment as...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Typical lubricants used in the forming of aluminum alloys, listed in approximate order of increasing effectiveness Kerosene Mineral oil (viscosity, 40 to 300 SUS at 100 °F) Petroleum jelly Mineral oil plus 10 to 20% fatty oil Tallow plus 50% paraffin Tallow plus 70% paraffin...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003178
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... also be coated or prelubricated by phosphatizing, plating, soaping, or limiting methods. If no intermediate annealing is required, some of the prelubricating methods permit several cold-drawing passes without repeated treatment. Solid bars or rods are generally lubricated by oil during the drawing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... roughness as measured by instruments. For example, heavily limed or stearate-coated wire produces a dull finish, but the use of grease or oil results in a high-luster finish. The condition of the tools is most important in controlling the workpiece finish. Rough surfaces on punches or dies are registered...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003184
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... graphite mixed with water, mineral spirits, or mineral oils. If metal flow is a problem, as in forging metal into narrow rib sections, soap is added to the graphite mixture. State-of-the-art lubricant application systems have the capability of applying very precise patterns or amounts of lubricant under...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... stain the casting, and one that carbonizes below the operating temperature will be used up on the first shot. The black oil and graphite lubricants have been replaced by water-based lubricants; this has reduced the fire hazard and smoky environments commonly found in die casting plants. Water-based...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004008
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... by a gripper attached to a powered cylindrical block or capstan. On so-called dry machines, the die is mounted in an adapter within a box. This die box contains grease, dry soap, oil, or other lubricants through which the stock must pass before reaching the die. Bars about 32 mm (1.25 in...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003987
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... of intricate detail, the type and amount of lubricant are less critical. A mixture of 50% oleum spirits and 50% medium-viscosity machine oil has been successful for prevention of galling and seizing for a large variety of coining operations. When coining involves maximum metal movement and high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003979
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... lubricants are used, and they can be applied by swabbing or spraying. The simplest is a high flash point oil swabbed onto the dies. Colloidal graphite suspensions in either oil or water are frequently used. Synthetic lubricants can be employed for light forging operations. The water-base and synthetic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003999
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... than 1 g (15 grains) of total sulfur per 2.8 m 3 (100 ft 3 ) of gas. Oil is a satisfactory fuel provided it has a low sulfur content. Oil containing more than 0.5% S should not be used. Coal and coke are generally unsatisfactory because of excessive sulfur content and the difficulty as well as...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003992
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... minimum temperature. A range of 150 to 205 °C (300 to 400 °F) is common. Dies are sometimes heated to 315 °C (600 °F). Die temperature is determined by means of temperature-sensitive crayons or surface pyrometers. Dies should be lubricated before each blow. A spray of colloidal graphite in water or oil...