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off-axis electron holography

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... panels that cannot be immersed, and contour followers for contoured parts. Ultrasonic Inspection Limitations The ultrasonic method suffers from destructive wave interference thickness. Adhesive thickness interference effects are most notable at the pinch-off zone near the edges of laminates bonded...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... of ultrasound (1 to 10 MHz). The important feature is that the ultrasound will propagate perpendicular to the surface, independent of the laser angle of incidence. This allows generation of ultrasound in complex-shaped parts at angles as high as ±45° off-axis, compared to conventional water- coupled transducers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006470
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... needs to be accessible. Operation is electronic, which provides almost instantaneous indication of flaws. With most systems, a permanent digital record of inspection data can be made for subsequent off-line review and for future reference. Volumetric scanning ability, enabling the inspection...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... is that the ultrasound will propagate perpendicular to the surface, independent of the laser angle of incidence. This allows generation of ultrasound in complex-shaped parts at angles as high as ±45° off-axis, compared to conventional water-coupled transducers that must remain within a few degrees of normal. Fig...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.9781627081900
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... or swept frequency) can be used for measuring the thickness of nonmetallic sections. A microwave beam is propagated through the material and reflected off the rear surface. An interference pattern change results for changes in thickness. Figure 1 shows the correlation curves of meter reading versus...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... to the longitudinal wave arrival, followed by a second one that corresponds to the shear wave arrival. In the far field, the emission pattern for the longitudinal and the shear wave presents symmetrical lobes inclined strongly off the normal (on the order of 30° for shear waves to more than 60° for longitudinal waves...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.9781627082136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... demonstrated with a number of different types of energy beams, such as ultrasound, electrons, protons, α-particles, lasers, and microwaves. In industrial nondestructive evaluations (NDEs), however, only x-ray computed tomography (XCT) is considered to have widespread value. For this reason, XCT is also...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... region using acetate tape softened in acetone, dried, then carefully stripped from the fracture surface. Upon return to the laboratory, the replicas may be gold coated and examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Foreign particles removed from the fracture surface also may be analyzed...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... information. Raman analyses of these samples are usually performed by reflecting the laser beam off the metal surface and collecting the scattered radiation in the specular direction. Several mechanisms that enhance the intensity of the Raman-scattered radiation at metal surfaces under certain conditions may...