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oblique illumination

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006684
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... what can be achieved using the light microscope, as shown in this article. For the study of the microstructure of metals and alloys, light microscopy is employed in the reflected-light mode using either bright-field illumination, dark-field illumination, polarized light illumination, oblique...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... analytical capabilities, specimen preparation, and the interpretation of fracture features. SEM can be subdivided into four systems, namely, illuminating/imaging, information, display, and vacuum systems. The article also describes the major criteria and techniques of SEM specimen preparation, and the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001833
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
..., low-contrast, uniform illumination for 360 ° and generates a minimum of heat. Fig. 8 Parallel lighting. With this setup, oblique lighting comes from two directions. It may be desirable to make one fluorescent lamp the principal source and to light the shadows it casts by positioning the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... surface artifacts, such as surface scratches, and for studying grain structures. The incident light is supplied through the outside of the lens and is reflected back through the objective, producing a dark background with bright features. Oblique illumination is useful for low-magnification analysis...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... printing methods have been developed, but their use is infrequent. Metallurgical microscopes differ from biological microscopes primarily in the manner by which the specimen is illuminated. Unlike biological microscopes, metallurgical microscopes must use reflected light. Figure 15 is a simplified...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... thickness will have a uniform, low-gloss appearance when viewed with oblique illumination. Thermally quenched phosphors are organic compounds that emit visible light when excited by ultraviolet light. The brightness of a phosphor is inversely proportional with temperature over a range from room...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... detail, oblique/tangential lighting at varying oblique angles and orientations is often useful in evaluating the fracture conditions present. Inspection and photographic documentation of as-manufactured surfaces is, however, benefited by illumination by diffused and reflected lighting, especially if the...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005342
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... such as surface damage, distortion, machining marks, fretting, corrosion deposits, and so forth all provide information about the environment and relationship to other components. The examination of the fracture should be done using good illumination to see the fine details of the surface. Oblique...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003230
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... Equipment used to aid visual inspection includes: Flexible and rigid borescopes to illuminate and observe internal, closed, and otherwise inaccessible areas Image sensors for remote sensing and to develop permanent visual records in the form of photographs, videotapes, and computer-enhanced images...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
...), external, oblique illumination is typically reflected off the sample into the objective. For higher magnifications, the source light is often directed vertically through the microscope objective to the sample. Magnification of the sample image is obtained by light refraction through a combination of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... microscopy. Figure 14(a) shows the replica photographed with oblique illumination from a point source lamp, and Fig. 14(b) shows the same area using transmitted light. Carbon was then vapor deposited onto the replica, and it was photographed again using oblique light from a point source ( Fig. 14c...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... fractures, the direction of crack propagation or extension through the material can be determined by examination under oblique illumination. Ridgelike fractures features, such as chevron marks, will typically point back to the fracture origin. It is often helpful to examine the casting and draw ink arrows...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... specimen edge (revealed using Nomarski differential interference contrast illumination) and the water stains (arrows on the aluminum specimen). Fig. 6 Light micrograph showing stain (arrows pointing up) from the etchant (Vilella’s reagent) that seeped from the shrinkage gap (wide arrows pointing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.9781627081719
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... fiber-optics cameras. Visual examination of translucent materials uses artificial lighting that can be contained in an illuminator to produce directional lighting. The illuminator provides light of an intensity that will illuminate and diffuse the light evenly through the area or region under...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... that are designed for the use of low-power macroscopic lenses. Figure 10 shows a copper tube with pitting that originated at the outside surface, which has been illuminated at low magnification on a metallograph with oblique lighting, together with illumination within the tube from fiber optics, to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000606
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... area just to the left of the fracture origin. The continuity of the chevron marks that point toward location S (at right end) is much more perceptible here than in Fig. 179 because of a difference in illumination. 0.28× Fig. 185 Section through the flange weld in Fig. 179 and 184 , taken...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... high-magnification analyses are critical to accurate failure analysis. Where the size of the failed part permits, visual examination should be conducted with a low-magnification wide-field stereomicroscope having an oblique source of illumination. In addition to locating the failure origin, visual...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006671
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., show light and shadow illumination as if the sample were illuminated by an oblique light source. This image shows three-dimensional topographic features. Higher-atomic-number areas and less electrically conductive microstructural features will appear brighter on polished and etched section samples and...