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oblique illumination

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... microscope, including the illumination system, collector lens, and optical and mechanical components. It describes optical performance in terms of image aberrations, resolution, and depth of field. The article discusses the examination of specimen surfaces using polarized light, phase contrast, oblique...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001833
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
..., oblique lighting comes from two directions. It may be desirable to make one fluorescent lamp the principal source and to light the shadows it casts by positioning the other lamp farther from the specimen. Fig. 9 Vertical illumination. The glass plate below the lens is set at a 45° angle...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... have been developed, but their use is infrequent. Metallurgical microscopes differ from biological microscopes primarily in the manner by which the specimen is illuminated. Unlike biological microscopes, metallurgical microscopes must use reflected light. Figure 15 is a simplified ray diagram...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006684
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... the hot mounting cycle, polishing, and then forming new martensite using the shape memory alloy cycle. Fig. 51 Microstructure of full-annealed Cu-30%Zn etched using Klemm’s I reagent and viewed using (a) bright field, (b) oblique illumination, and (c) Nomarski DIC. Excessive relief was produced...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... is infrequent. Metallurgical microscopes differ from biological microscopes primarily in the manner by which the specimen is illuminated. Unlike biological microscopes, metallurgical microscopes must use reflected light. Figure 15 is a simplified ray diagram of a metallurgical microscope, while Fig. 16...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... structures. The incident light is supplied through the outside of the lens and is reflected back through the objective, producing a dark background with bright features. Oblique illumination is useful for low-magnification analysis that requires a three-dimensional appearance. It uses low-angle...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...-gloss appearance when viewed with oblique illumination. Thermally Quenched Phosphors Thermally quenched phosphors are organic compounds that emit visible light when excited by ultraviolet light. The brightness of a phosphor is inversely proportional with temperature over a range from room...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...-gloss appearance when viewed with oblique illumination. Thermally quenched phosphors are organic compounds that emit visible light when excited by ultraviolet light. The brightness of a phosphor is inversely proportional with temperature over a range from room temperature to about 400 °C (750 °F...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003542
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Fig. 6 Silicon nitride rod broken in uniaxial tension. The same rod shown in Fig. 5 . Fracture origin is at the top of the image. Optical microscope; reflected light (oblique illumination); picture width ∼5 mm Fig. 7 Cellulose acetate replica of the fracture surface of a glazed electrical...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005342
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... details of the surface. Oblique illumination should be used to evaluate the texture and profile of the fracture. This type of illumination will help determine the location of the fracture origin. The visual inspection should be conducted both prior to and after cleaning or removal of surface contamination...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... is reflected from the sample surface through the microscope objective to an eyepiece, view screen, or camera. Transmitted light is occasionally used for transparent and translucent materials. For low-magnification work (stereomicroscopy), external, oblique illumination is typically reflected off the sample...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... epi-bright-field illumination and epi-fluorescence. The microcracked area of the composite material was sectioned and polished at an oblique angle through the thickness to emphasize the interlayer region. (a) Bright-field illumination, 25× objective. (b) Epi-fluorescence, 390–440 nm excitation, 25...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., oblique/tangential lighting at varying oblique angles and orientations is often useful in evaluating the fracture conditions present. Inspection and photographic documentation of as-manufactured surfaces is, however, benefited by illumination by diffused and reflected lighting, especially if the component...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.9781627081771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003230
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... Equipment used to aid visual inspection includes: Flexible and rigid borescopes to illuminate and observe internal, closed, and otherwise inaccessible areas Image sensors for remote sensing and to develop permanent visual records in the form of photographs, videotapes, and computer-enhanced images...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003230
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... Equipment used to aid visual inspection includes: Flexible and rigid borescopes to illuminate and observe internal, closed, and otherwise inaccessible areas Image sensors for remote sensing and to develop permanent visual records in the form of photographs, videotapes, and computer-enhanced images...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009080
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... that was sectioned at an oblique angle to obtain a larger view of the interlayer region. Large, irregular ases, with some phases spherical and hollow, were found in the interlayer area and extended into the intraply area. Ultrathin section. Transmitted light, phase contrast, 40× objective Fig. 4 Dispersed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009078
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Fig. 1 Glass fabric composite that has high void content. Void areas are due to residual solvent from the prepregging process. Bright-field illumination, 10× objective Fig. 2 Laminate made with unidirectional carbon fiber prepreg and woven carbon fabric prepreg plies. Voids are shown...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003527
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... at this stage of the investigation. Illumination at varying degrees of obliqueness and orientation can be helpful in evaluating fracture conditions present. The failed component and any fractured and separated pieces should then be photographed. At this stage, it is important to document how the fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
.... With dark-field illumination, the light path is blocked from the objective center and is directed to the specimen at an oblique angle. This eliminates the reflected image in favor of the image formed as light passes through the sample subsurface. Therefore, a dark background is shown for planar surfaces...