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numerical method

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Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Table 1 Software packages for numerical solution of computational fluid dynamics problems Software package Discretization method (a) Meshing Web resource MAGMASOFT FV Block-structured www.magmasoft.com Procast FE Fully unstructured www.esi-group.com FLOW-3D FV...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006452
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... applications. It discusses the mathematics behind classical beamforming, full matrix capture, and total focusing methods of imaging. The article shows how ultrasonic array data can be simulated by direct numerical methods (most commonly using finite-element methods), analytical methods, or hybrid methods. It...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005431
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract Several methods are developed for the numerical solution of partial differential equations, namely, meshed-solution methods such as the finite-element method (FEM), finite-difference method, and boundary-element method; and numerical algorithms consisting of so-called meshed-solution...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract This article provides a summary of the overall development of the finite element method (FEM) and its contribution to the materials forming industry. It presents an overview of FEM methodologies and applications in the order of their usage in typical manufacturing (bulk forming process...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006679
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... of these methods. Some of the factors pertinent to electrochemical cells are also provided. In addition, the article provides information on various potentiometric membrane electrodes used to quantify numerous ionic and nonionic species. coulometry potentiometric membrane electrodes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005983
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
...-endothermic base; and Class 600, ammonia base. These are subclassified and numerically designated to indicate variations in the method by which they are prepared. The article also contains a table that lists significant furnace atmospheres and their typical applications. atmosphere furnaces carbon...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005434
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... process involves the basic steps of defining boundary conditions and applying discrete numerical methods (e.g., finite element) for solution. Currently, powerful commercial simulation packages capable of addressing complex multiphysics problems tend to supplant user's personal codes developed mainly in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract This article describes the methods for removing metallic contaminants, tarnish, and scale resulting from hot-working or heat-treating operations on nickel-, cobalt-, and iron-base heat-resistant alloys. It provides a brief description of applicable finishing and coating processes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... apply loads by a gear (screw)-driven mechanism or hydraulic mechanisms, as discussed in more detail in the section “Frame-Furnace Tension-Testing Equipment” in this article. The heating method used for hot-tension testing varies with the application. The most common heating techniques are direct...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003046
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... fabric reinforcement. These will be parts with minimal load requirements. Bolted repairs are the most common for battle-damage repairs because of their reliability. Alternative bonding methods require more rigorous control of surface treatments, storage of heat-sensitive bonding materials, and special...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003186
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... electrolytic machining (STEM) Thermal Electrical discharge machining (EDM) Electrical discharge wire cutting (EDWC) Electrical discharge grinding (EDG) Electron beam machining (EBM) Laser beam machining (LBM) Thermal energy method (TEM) Chemical Chemical milling (CM...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
.... Operations such as averaging and adaptive filtering could be used, as well as more advanced methods such as split-spectrum processing or wavelet de-noising. Regarding imaging, a numerical imaging approach such as the one based on the synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) can be combined with laser...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006472
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... measure the arrival time of the signals and not, as with pulse echo, on measuring the signal amplitudes. Time-of-flight diffraction is usually performed using longitudinal waves as the primary detection method. Ultrasonic sensors are placed on each side of the weld. One sensor transmits the ultrasonic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003989
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... somewhat analogous to the method of water testing used in the design of casting equipment in which water is substituted for liquid metal. Numerical modeling involves detailed simulation of the entire cogging process, most commonly using finite element analysis, although successful alternatives have been...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... hardness testing is used to assess machinability. A preferred method is to combine hardness testing with a microstructure evaluation because some microconstituents that adversely affect machinability have only a minor influence on hardness. Figure 2 illustrates the microstructures of typical gray...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005336
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... of thumb in methoding castings, the pouring time in seconds is designed to be the square root of poured weight in pounds. Thus, the average pouring rate in lb/s also is numerically equal to the pouring time. The pouring rate is determined by the sprue head height, the smallest cross-sectional area in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... method exists to predict which metal-environment combinations will result in SCC; the available information is experiential and has been collected from laboratory data and industrial experience over the past century. Metals/alloys susceptible to SCC develop a protective film, such as an oxide or...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... technologies collect solar energy and convert it to thermal energy, which can be stored before powering a generator. Although energy can be stored by other methods, such as pumped hydro, batteries, and supercapacitors, TES has the advantages of lower capital costs and high operating efficiencies ( Ref 74...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005656
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... which 1866 were available for followup. Survival of the implant, with any stem revision as the endpoint, was found to be 98.6% at 5 years, 98.4% at 10 years, 97.1% at 15 years, and 95.5% at 20 years using the Kaplan-Meier method ( Ref 75 ). Several investigations have been performed to find the best...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., bronze, tin-lead, zinc-iron, and zinc-nickel alloys. Each of these will be described in the following paragraphs. Additional alloy plating systems are described in Surface Engineering, Volume 5, ASM Handbook. SELECTIVE PLATING, also referred to as brush plating, is a method of...