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normal stress-dominated growth

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002366
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... normal stress-dominated growth, along with some observations regarding the influence of combined stress state on the propagation of small cracks. The article discusses the differences between low-cycle fatigue and high-cycle fatigue (HCF) behaviors. Several other features of multiaxial fatigue are also...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001286
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... ( Ref 39 ) Tensile stresses can be developed when the growth mechanism does not allow the depositing atoms to attain their lowest energy positions. The Klockholm-Berry model is based on a constrained shrinkage of deposited material resulting in lattice parameters greater than normal. The grain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002389
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... of crack initiation and propagation in turbine casings is fatigue and creep-fatigue and occasionally brittle fracture due to high transient thermal stresses ( Ref 4 ). Thermal stresses are responsible for fatigue and creep-fatigue crack growth (CFCG) in the lower-temperature regions, while creep...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005458
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... boundaries normal to the maximum tensile stress direction, and growth occurs by vacancy transport along the boundary. Voids in formable alloys, however, seldom form as arrays on single boundaries but rather initiate sporadically and are associated with certain nondeformable particles or hard phases whose...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... and changing demands, there is often a thermal-mechanical fatigue process introduced during service ( Ref 1 ). These processes can affect the service life of a material by inducing a redistribution of crack-tip stresses and by affecting the creep zone growth behavior ( Ref 2 ) or by changing the creep crack...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002359
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... stresses, texture, loading mode, environment, and crack coalescence. Measurement of crack shapes or aspect ratios during fatigue crack growth can be performed by a number of techniques. The article describes the estimation of the stress-intensity factor for arbitrarily-shaped cracks and failure prediction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002352
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... the service load. The final fracture is usually abrupt, but it is generally preceded by a cracking process that occurs slowly over the service life from various crack growth mechanisms (e.g., see Fig. 1 ) such as fatigue, stress-corrosion cracking, creep, and hydrogen-induced cracking. Each of these cracking...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002360
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... rotational-bending servomechanical system specimen size FATIGUE is generally understood to be a process dominated by cyclic plastic deformation, such that fatigue damage can occur at stresses below the monotonic yield strength. The process of fatigue cracking generally begins from locations where...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003317
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... length specimen preparation specimen selection FATIGUE is generally understood to be a process dominated by cyclic plastic deformation, such that fatigue damage can occur at stresses below the monotonic yield strength. The process of fatigue cracking generally begins from locations where...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... on the environmentally assisted crack growth of polymers is also included. The article details the evaluation of nanoscale environmental effects and indentation-induced cohesive cracking. It also provides information on scanning probe microscopy. hydrogen embrittlement stress-corrosion cracking corrosion fatigue...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005428
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... energy, h i = H , and so, the ratio of H / J determines the behavior of the system. For low values of H / J , normal grain growth is observed, but as H / J increases, the stored energy term dominates. Figure 11 shows the microstructural evolution of such a system in which each grain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002356
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... Growth in Aluminium Alloy Sheet Material under Flight-Simulation Loading: Effect of Design Stress Level and Loading Frequency,” Report TR 72018, National Aerospace Laboratory , Amsterdam , 1972 29. Hartman A. , On the Effect of Oxygen and Water Vapour on the Propagation of Fatigue Cracks...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... on crack growth rates under cyclic load. The article examines corrosion-fatigue cracking along with the effects of cracking due to stress corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement, which often occur together. It explains how test parameters such as loading and environmental conditions impact crack growth...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003382
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... is a critical issue in fatigue and generally results from high interlaminar normal and shear stresses. The article schematically illustrates the structural elements in which high interlaminar stresses are common. It concludes with a discussion on the classification of fatigue models, such as mechanistic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003641
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... characteristics of probability distributions, such as normal distribution, log-normal distribution, exponential distribution, Poisson distribution, and extreme-value distribution. It also provides information on the statistical concepts to produce effective test programs. susceptibility stress-corrosion...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., that is, plowing and cutting, the wear rate can be expressed through the following parameters ( Ref 7 , 9 ): the probability of wear debris formation, the proportion of plowing and cutting processes, the abrasive particle shape and size, the applied stress, and the hardness of the wear surface. For brittle...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... behavior, concurrent grain growth, and high stress behavior. ambient temperature creep mechanisms diffusion creep diffusional flow dislocation creep Nabarro-Herring creep strain hardening CONSTITUTIVE RELATIONS for metalworking include elements of behavior at ambient temperature as well...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... L.C. and Rahaman M.N. , Sintering Stress of Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Powder Compacts , Acta Metall. , Vol 36 , 1988 , p 223 – 229 7. Cannon R.M. and Carter W.C. , Interplay of Sintering Microstructures, Driving Forces, and Mass Transport Mechanisms , J. Am. Ceram...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... reviews the various forms of corrosions, such as graphitic corrosion, fretting corrosion, pitting and crevice corrosion, intergranular attack, erosion-corrosion, microbiologically induced corrosion, and stress-corrosion cracking. It discusses the four general categories of coatings used on cast irons...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
..., and high-stress region. It also discusses the effect of impurities on superplastic flow and concludes with information on grain growth during testing. superplastic deformation mechanical behaviour superplasticity creep stress rate strain rate boundary sliding grain growth grain size...