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normal distribution

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Book Chapter

By P.S. Grant
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... process that always produces a wide range of droplet diameters. The article schematically illustrates typical log-normal droplet diameter probability density distribution on a mass or volume basis obtained by gas atomization. It also illustrates the changes in solid fraction during the spray casting...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003196
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article describes the heat treating (stress relieving, normalizing, annealing, quenching, tempering, martempering, austempering, and age hardening) of different types of steels, including ultrahigh-strength steels, maraging steels, and powder metallurgy steels. Tabulating the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005957
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... obtain the desired surface condition. The most common heat treatments performed in furnaces are annealing, normalizing, hardening, tempering, spheroidizing, carburizing, and stress relieving. Heat treating furnaces seldom are designed for temperatures in excess of 1400 °C (2550 °F) and generally are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... In general, the angular distribution of material from the laser-generated plasma is sharply peaked with respect to the target normal, with some tilting of the distribution toward the incident laser beam. Early studies on the PLD of multicomponent films indicated that the spatial distribution of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006644
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... surface. The wave vectors inside the crystal differ from that outside only by a vector normal to the crystal surface, that is, K → 0 − k → 0 = δ n → , where n → is a unit vector normal to the surface, and δ is a scalar variable. A line normal drawn from the tip of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... characteristics of fatigue fractures followed by a discussion on the effects of loading and stress distribution, and material condition on the microstructure of the material. In addition, general prevention and characteristics of corrosion fatigue, contact fatigue, and thermal fatigue are also presented...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... level at interfaces and dislocations ( Ref 3 , 4 ). The long-range residual stresses encountered in aluminum alloys are considered detrimental and are usually a consequence of heat treatment. Rapid cooling after solution treatment is normally performed on commercial products by immersion quenching...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14